A Comparative Law Perspective - Hugo Sinzheimer Institut

J Wang, PG Ipeirotis, and F Provost, 'A Framework for Quality Assurance in. Crowdsourcing', NYU Stern School of Business Research Working Paper (13 June.
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Bernd Waas / Wilma B. Liebman / Andrew Lyubarsky / Katsutoshi Kezuka Crowdwork – A Comparative Law Perspective

HSI-Schriftenreihe Band 22

Bernd Waas / Wilma B. Liebman / Andrew Lyubarsky / Katsutoshi Kezuka

Crowdwork – A Comparative Law Perspective

Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar.

© 2017 by Bund-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main Herstellung: Kerstin Wilke Umschlaggestaltung: Neil McBeath, Stuttgart Satz: Reemers Publishing Services GmbH, Krefeld Druck: CPI books GmbH, Leck Printed in Germany 2017 ISBN 978-3-7663-6697-9 Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere die des öffentlichen Vortrags, der Rundfunksendung und der Fernsehausstrahlung, der fotomechanischen Wiedergabe, auch einzelner Teile. www.bund-verlag.de

Foreword

As the world becomes increasingly digitalized, we are confronted with new, often disruptive, business models also leading to new forms of labour. One feature of this development is the dual phenomenon of crowdsourcing and crowdworking, which spans the whole value-chain of the economy and represents a global labour market. The working conditions in this sector cannot be ignored, because they have a great impact on the situation of established employees, on the competition between crowdworkers, and on the sustainability of the systems of social security. Although it is too soon to give a final assessment of this emerging workplace, we can be sure it will have a significant influence on the labour market, including (labour) law institutions. Against this background the HSI decided to have a closer look at the factual and legal developments crowdsourcing has brought about in three major legal landscapes. We are very happy and grateful to have found three high-ranking legal experts to fulfill this task. The findings in this study can be seen as a preliminary evaluation of the dynamic and erratic developments in the “platform economy”. Crowdworkers work under very different arrangements (as our authors show), and each case presents a slightly different employment picture, some crowdworkers perhaps amounting to employees, others more like selfemployed contractors (and others somewhere in between). But because few crowdworkers currently enjoy social protections, this study also offers a broad variety of legislative options that could work to address such shortcomings within several legal systems. We wish you inspiring reading.

Dr. Thomas Klebe

Dr. Johannes Heuschmid

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Contents

Foreword ........................................................................................................................ 5 A. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 13 (Bernd Waas) I. II. III. IV. B.

The Notion of Crowdwork and Its Different Forms .............................. 13 The Extent of Crowdworking ................................................................... 16 Opportunities and Risks of Crowdwork ................................................. 17 Problems Associated with Crowdwork and the Need for Regulation ............................................................................................. 20

Crowdworkers, the Law and the Future of Work: The U.S. ...................... 24 (Wilma B. Liebman and Andrew Lyubarsky) I. II.

Introduction ................................................................................................ 24 The Institutional Setting ............................................................................ 28 1. The Workplace Regulation Debate .................................................... 28 2. The Workplace Legal Regime: From the New Deal to the Present .............................................