Algorithmic Composition: Computational Thinking ... - Semantic Scholar

This paper will outline the history of algorithmic composition from the pre- .... computer hardware was common at US universities in the mid-twentieth century.
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Algorithmic Composition: Computational Thinking in Music DRAFT Michael Edwards Reader in Music Technology School of Arts, Culture and Environment University of Edinburgh Edinburgh, UK

[email protected] ABSTRACT Despite the still-prevalent but essentially nineteenth century perception of the Western creative artist, an algorithmic approach to music composition has been in evidence in Western classical music for at least one thousand years. The history of algorithmic composition—from both before and after the invention of the digital computer—will be presented along with specific techniques and musical examples from the distant and recent past.

Keywords Algorithmic Composition, Computer-aided Composition, Automatic Composition, Computer Music, Stochastic Music, Xenakis, Ligeti, Lejaren Hiller.



In the West, the layman’s vision of the creative artist is largely bound in romantic notions of inspiration sacred or secular in origin. Images are plentiful; for example, a man standing tall on a cliff top, the wind blowing through his long hair (naturally), waiting for that particular iconoclastic idea to arrive through the ether.1 Tales, some even true, of genii penning whole operas in a matter of days, further blur the reality of the usually slowly-wrought process of composition. Mozart, with his speed of writing, is a famous example who to some extent fits the clich´e, though perhaps not quite as well as legend would have it.2 1 I’m thinking in particular of Caspar David Friedrich’s painting From the Summit, in the Hamburg Kunsthalle. 2 Mozart’s compositional process is a complex and often misunderstood matter, complicated by myth—especially regarding his now refuted ability to compose everything in his head [12, 104]—and Mozart’s own statements such as “I must finish now, because I’ve got to write at breakneck

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That composition should include calculation3 and, from the perspective of the non-specialist, seemingly arbitrary, uninspired technique or formal development, can lead to disappointment on the part of those casually interested in the subject. What we shall see is that calculation has been part of the Western composition tradition for at least a thousand years. This paper will outline the history of algorithmic composition from the pre- and post-digital computer age, concentrating in particular, but not exclusively, on how it developed out of the avant-garde Western classical tradition in the second half of the twentieth century. This survey will be more illustrative than all-inclusive; it will present examples of particular techniques and some of the music that has been produced with them.



Models of musical process are arguably natural to human musical activity. Listening involves both enjoyment of the sensual sonic experience and the setting up of expectations and possibilities of what is to come: “Retention in shortterm memory permits the experience of coherent musical entities, comparison with other events in the musical flow, conscious or subconscious comparison with previous musical experience stored in long-term memory, and the continuous formation of expectations of coming musical events.” [7, 42] This second, active part of musical listening is what gives rise to the possibility, the development of musical form: “Because we spontaneously compare any new feature appearing in consciousness with the features already experienced, and from t