AppleScript William R. Cook, University of Texas at Austin With contributions from Warren Harris, Kurt Piersol, Dave Curbow, Donn Denman, Edmund Lai, Ron Lichty, Larry Tesler, Mitchell Gass & Donald Olson
September 29, 2006 Abstract AppleScript is a scripting language and environment for the Mac OS. Originally conceived in 1989, AppleScript allows end-users to automate complex tasks and customize Mac OS applications. To automate tasks, AppleScript provides standard programming language features (control flow, variables, data structures) and sends Apple Events to invoke application behavior. Apple Events is a variation on standard remote procedure calls in which messages can identify their arguments by queries that are interpreted by the remote application. This approach avoids the need for remote object pointers or proxies and reduces the number of communication round-trips, which are expensive in high-latency environments like the early Macintosh OS. To customize an application that uses AppleScript’s Open Scripting Architecture, users attach scripts to application objects; these scripts can then intercept and modify application behavior. AppleScript was designed for casual users: AppleScript syntax resembles natural language, and script can be created easily by recording manual operations on a graphical interface. AppleScript also supported internationalization in allowing script to be presented in multiple dialects, including English, Japanese, or French. Although the naturalistic syntax is easy to read, it can make scripts much more difficult to write. Early adoption was hindered by the difficulty of modifying applications to support Apple Events and the Open Scripting Architecture. Yet AppleScript is now widely used and is an essential differentiator of the Mac OS. AppleScript’s communication model is a precursor to web services, and the idea of embedded scripting has been widely adopted.
The development of AppleScript was a long and complex process that spanned multiple teams, several false starts and changes of plan, and coordination between different projects and companies. It is difficult for any one person, or even small group of people, to present a comprehensive history of such a project, especially without official support from the company for which the work was done. 1
The email record of the team’s communications have been lost, and the author no longer has access to internal specifications and product plans. Yet I believe that the development of AppleScript is a story worth telling, and I have been encouraged to attempt it despite the inherent difficulty of the task. I can offer only my own subjective views on the project, as someone who was intimately involved with all its aspects. I apologize in advance for errors and distortions that I will inevitably introduce into the story, in spite of my best efforts to be accurate. I first heard the idea of AppleScript while having lunch with Kurt Piersol in February of 1991. The meeting was arranged by our mutual friend James Redfern. I knew James from Brown, where he was finishing his undergraduate degree after some time off, and I was working on my PhD. James and I both moved to California at about the same time, in 1988. We spent a lot of time together and I had heard a little about what he was up to, but he claimed it was secret. James arranged the meeting because Kurt was looking for someone to lead the AppleScript effort, and I was looking for something new to do. For the previous two and a half years I had been working at HP Labs. I was a member of the Abel group, including Walt Hill, Warren Harris, Peter Canning, and Walter Olthoff. John Mitchell consulted with us from Stanford. The group was managed by Alan Snyder, whose formalization of object concepts  was one basis for the development of CORBA. At HP Labs I finished writing my PhD thesis, A Denotational Semantics of Inheritance [14, 19], which the Abel group used as the foundation for a number of papers. We published p