article - Harvard Law Review

This Article examines a recent and dramatic transformation in the relationship between the President (and his staff) and the administrative state. Professor Kagan.
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ARTICLE PRESIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATION Elena Kagan TABLE OF CONTENTS I. NON-PRESIDENTIAL MECHANISMS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL ..................... 2253 A. CongressionalControl .......................................................................................................

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B. Self-Control ........................................................................................................................

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C. Interest Group Control......................................................................................................

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D . JudicialControl.................................................................................................................

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II. PRESIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATION -

SOME BACKGROUND AND HISTORY ........ 2272

A. Early Efforts .......................................................................................................................

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B. The R eagan Era .................................................................................................................

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C. A Postscript........................................................................................................................

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III. PRESIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATION IN THE CLINTON YEARS .................................

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A. Tvo Examples.....................................................................................................................

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B. Techniques: R eview, D irectives, and Appropriation.....................................................

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i. Review ............................................................................................................................

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2. Directives .......................................................................................................................

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3. Appropriation ................................................................................................................

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C. Scope and Lim its ...............................................................................................................

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D . Causes and R esponses ......................................................................................................

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E. Comparisonsand a Prediction........................................................................................

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IV. ASSESSING PRESIDENTIAL ADM INISTRATION ............................................................

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A. ConstitutionalQuestions..................................................................................................

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B. The Case for PresidentialAdm inistration.....................................................................

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. Accountability ...............................................................................................................

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2. Effectiveness ..................................................................................................................

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C. Objections and Lim itations..............................................................................................

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Congress ......................................................................................................................... C.

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2. Experts ...........................................................................................................................

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3. Constituencies ............................................