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1119 (2005); see also Maureen Carroll, Aggregation for Me, but ...... 170 See Carroll, supra note 6, at 2033; see, e.g., Davis, 874 F. Supp. ..... Shelby County, ...
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VOLUME 131

DECEMBER 2017

NUMBER 2

© 2017 by The Harvard Law Review Association

ARTICLES MULTIPLE CHANCELLORS: REFORMING THE NATIONAL INJUNCTION Samuel L. Bray

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 418 I.

THE ORIGINS OF THE NATIONAL INJUNCTION .......................................................... 424 A. The Absence of the National Injunction from Traditional Equity ............................. 425 B. The Changing Scope of Injunctions Against Federal Defendants .............................. 428

1. No National Injunctions (to the 1960 s) .................................................................. 428 2. The Emergence of National Injunctions (from the 1960 s) .................................... 437 II.

WHY DID THE NATIONAL INJUNCTION EMERGE? .................................................... 445 A. The Structural Precondition: Multiple Chancellors ..................................................... 446 B. Two Ideological Shifts ...................................................................................................... 448 C. Other Changes?.................................................................................................................. 452

III. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE NATIONAL INJUNCTION .......................................... 457 A. The Incentive to Forum Shop ......................................................................................... 457 B. The Effect on Judicial Decisionmaking ......................................................................... 461 C. The Risk of Conflicting Injunctions ............................................................................... 462 D. The Doctrinal Inconsistencies ......................................................................................... 464 IV. THE FAILURE OF EXISTING LIMITS ............................................................................... 465 V.

WHERE SHOULD WE GO FROM HERE? ......................................................................... 469 A. Injunctions Should Be Plaintiff Protective................................................................... 469 B. Objections .......................................................................................................................... 473

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Differential Treatment ................................................................................................. 473 Regulatory Disruption ................................................................................................. 476 Regulatory Entrenchment ........................................................................................... 476 Plaintiff Detection ....................................................................................................... 478 A Standard, Not a Rule .............................................................................................. 479

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................. 481

417

MULTIPLE CHANCELLORS: REFORMING THE NATIONAL INJUNCTION Samuel L. Bray In several recent high-profile cases, federal district judges have issued injunctions that apply across the nation, controlling the defendants’ behavior with respect to nonparties. This Article analyzes the scope of injunctions to restrain the enforcement of a federal statute, regulation, or order. This analysis shows the consequences of the national injunction: more forum shopping, worse judicial decisionmaking, a risk of conflicting injunctions, and tension with other doctrines and practices of the federal courts. This Article shows that the national injunction is a recent development in the history of equity. There was a structural shift at the Fou