Bees in Decline
A review of factors that put pollinators and agriculture in Europe at risk Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Report (Review) 01/2013
Bees in Decline
A review of factors that put pollinators and agriculture in Europe at risk Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Report (Review) 01/2013 Executive Summary
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1. Introduction: Importance of bees and other pollinators for agriculture and ecosystem conservation 13 2. The global and European situation with bees and other pollinators 17
Written by: Written by Reyes Tirado, Gergely Simon and Paul Johnston Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, UK Front and back cover images © Greenpeace / Pieter Boer Honeycomb background image © Greenpeace / Pieter Boer
3. The main factors affecting bee populations’ health
5. What we can do to protect bees and other pollinators
6. Conclusions and recommendations 43 References 44
JN446 Published April 2013 by Greenpeace International Ottho Heldringstraat 5 1066 AZ Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel: +31 20 7182000 greenpeace.org
The next time you see a bee buzzing around, remember that much of the food we eat depends significantly on natural insectmediated pollination – the key ecosystem service that bees and other pollinators provide. Without insect pollination, about one third of the crops we eat would have to be pollinated by other means, or they would produce significantly less food. Up to 75% of our crops would suffer some decrease in productivity. Undoubtedly, the most nutritious and interesting crops in our diet (including many key fruits and vegetables), together with some crops used as fodder in meat and dairy production, would be badly affected by a decline in insect pollinators; in particular, the production of apples, strawberries, tomatoes, and almonds would suffer. The most recent estimate of the global economic benefit of pollination amounts to some €265bn, assessed as the value of crops dependent on natural pollination. This is not a “real” value, of course, as it hides the fact that, should natural pollination be severely compromised or end, it might prove impossible to replace – effectively making its true value infinitely high.
Bees – including the managed honeybees, together with many wild species – are the predominant and most economically important group of pollinators in most geographical regions. Managed honeybees, however, have been suffering increasingly in recent years, even as the world moves progressively towards growing more crops that are dependent on bee pollination. Similarly, the role of wild pollinators – bee species, as well as other insects – is gaining relevance worldwide, and attracting increased research attention. Moreover, wild bees are also threatened by many environmental factors, including lack of natural and semi-natural habitats, and increased exposure to man-made chemicals. Put in simple terms, bees and other pollinators – both natural and managed – seem to be declining globally, but particularly in North America and Europe. Lack of robust regional or international programmes designed to monitor the current status and trends of pollinators means there is considerable uncertainty in the scale and extent of this decline. Nonetheless, the known losses alone are striking. In recent winters, honeybee colony mortality in Europe has averaged around 20% (with a wide range of 1.8% to 53% between countries).
And how much value can we place on the abundance of colour that greets us on a bright spring day, for example? Beside crop plants, most wild plants (around 90% of them) need animal-mediated pollination to reproduce, and thus other ecosystem services and the wild habitat