Key words: toxicity, cell culture, adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells
Maciej K. BEŁCIK*
THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE MATTER FRACTION 2.5 µM ON THE CELL LINE A549
In the past few years in Poland is observer increasing air pollution. One of many pollution observed in the air are solid particles called particulate matter. Particulate matter is responsible for formation of smog over large metropolis. Among the cities for witch this problem is particularly observer are among others Wrocław. Inhalation of particulate matter adverse negative effects on human population causing asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arteriosclerosis and cardiac ischemia. The main sources of particulate matter in atmosphere are exhaust from road transport and gases emitted from individual coal furnace. Other big issue is low awareness of the society, which use lowgrade coal and waste for heating in houses. The following article presents the initial studies of particulate matter air pollutions on adenocarcinomas human alveolar basal epithelial cells A549. Conducted research allow to check the suitability cell lines to research particulate matter fraction 2.5 µm, determine dose limits and impact of solvents concentration on A549 cell line.
1. INTRODUCTION In the atmospheric air there is more than 2,000 chemical substances. Some of them are absorbed can be adsorbed on the surface of matriculate matter. Substances in the air may form a complicated mixtures with unknown properties and activity. Among the substances adsorbed in the surface of particulate matter can be found inter alia metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, organic compound containing chlorine and more .
__________ * Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27.
Particulate matter pollutions cause many health problems in human body including premature death causing cardiovascular and respiratory problems [2-4]. Research conducted by Burns and Lim in 2010 showed that air pollutions are responsible for more than 3.2 million premature deaths, which classifies them in the second position among environmental and ninth among global risk factors in the world [2, 5]. In addition particulate matter air pollutions are also responsible for airways disease such as asthma attacks, pneumonia, decreased lung function and cardiovascular system like hearth attack. This disease, caused by particulate matter, are observed not only in groups exposed on the environmental risk but also in potential healthy part of the population [2-3, 6]. In October 2013 group of 24 experts from 11 different countries affiliated to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) based on all available knowledge and evidences shown in studies, classifies air pollution, including particulate matter, to group 1 of genotoxic compounds. Group 1 of International Agency for Research on Cancer contains substances which studies proved carcinogenicity to humans. Except air pollutants there are substances adsorbed on the particulate matter like benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, formaldehyde, diesel exhaust. In groups 2A and 2B which contains substances probably and potentially carcinogenic are for example benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthren, benzo[c]phenanthrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene [7-9]. Table 1 shows the classification of carcinogenic substances using by IARC. Table 1. IARC classification of carcinogenic substances August 24, 2015  Group 1 2A 2B 3 4
Description Substances carcionogenic for humans Substances probably carcionogenic for humans Substances potentialy carcionogenic for humans Substances which cannot be classified as carcinogenic for humans Substances probably not carcinogenic for humans
Number of substances 117 74 287 503 1
The most frequently used methods of assessing genotoxicity of particulate matter air pollutions are tests based on the