T R A N S N AT I O N A L
I N S T I T U T E
B o u n c i n g b ac k Relapse in the Golden Triangle
Bouncing Back - Relapse in the Golden Triangle Authors Tom Kramer Ernestien Jensema Martin Jelsma Tom Blickman With contributions from Amira Armenta, Sophie Broach, Zung Ring and local researchers Copy Editor Deborah Eade www.deboraheade.net Design Guido Jelsma www.guidojelsma.nl Photo Credits Tom Kramer Ernestien Jensema Romesh Bhattacharji SKT Amaralak Khamhong And other local researchers Cover Photo Opium harvest in Kachin State (SKT) Printing Jubels, Amsterdam Financial contributions OXFAM NOVIB Sweden Royal Norwegian Embassy in Bangkok Royal Danish Embassy in Bangkok Royal Dutch Embassy in Bangkok
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Map Golden Triangle
Opium Cultivation in the Golden Triangle The Return of the Poppy Balloon Effect Opium Farmer from Northeast India Drivers of Increased Cultivation Access to Land Land Grabbing Regional and Global Market Growing Chinese Demand for Kachin Opium Table 1: Opium and heroin prices in Kachin State 2002–2012 Table 2: Opium and heroin prices in Burma 2012–2013 Table 3: ‘Guesstimates’ of Global Illicit Opium Cultivation and Production 2011–2013 Licensed Opium Cultivation in India Debatable Data: Facts or Fantasy?
10 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 19 20
Conflict, Crime and Corruption 24 The Failure of US Spraying of Poppy Fields in Burma 25 Drugs and Conflict in Northeast India 26 Drugs and Conflict in Burma 27 Militarisation and Conflict Management 30 Role of Militias in the Drug Trade 32 Blame and Shame 33 34 The Mekong Killings: Case closed? 34 Chinese Entrepreneurs 35 Corruption and ‘Markets of Violence’ 38 Opium, Heroin, Amphetamines and Other Substances 39 Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) 39 Traditional Opium Use 40 Current Opium Use Traditional Opium Consumption Versus Problematic 41 Heroin Use in Burma 42 Opium Cultivation and Use in Shan State 43 Heroin Epidemic 44 Shifting from Opium to Heroin in Kachin State Table 4: Examples of Rising Heroin and Methamphetamine 45 (Yaba) Prices in Burma during 2005-2010 Table 5: Table Rising prices of Heroin in Burma 2003-2013 46 Table 6: Table Rising prices of Methamphetamine (Yaba) in 46 Burma 2003-2013 Problematic Heroin Use in Kachin and Shan State 47
Increasing Health Risks HIV/AIDS and Stigmatisation Drug Use and Dealing Small Drug Dealers Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) ATS Precursors Kratom Ketamine – a K-hole in the Market? Tramadol – Problem or Solution?
48 49 50 51 52 52 54 55 58
Alternative Development First A Drug-Free ASEAN? Eradication and Opium Bans Opium Cultivation and Eradication in Sadung Region Development First Human Development Indicators Best Practices Involvement of Farmers Towards Agrarian Justice Cannabis Cultivation and AD UN System Incoherence Containing the World Drugs Problem? Harm Reduction for the Supply Side Drugs and Peace Talks in Colombia Conflict Sensitive Drug Policies
60 60 61 63<