Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession - OECD.org

…but career prospects, career diversity and giving teachers responsibility as professionals and .... …not just in vocational programs. ..... Belgium (Fl.) Ma lta. T.
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Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession Lessons from around the world

Andreas Schleicher

Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, EDU

High student performance

2

(PISA average reading, mathematics and science)



High average performance

Shangai-China

High average performance

Large socio-economic disparities

High social equity

Korea Finland 

 Singapore

Andres Schleicher

 New Zealand

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

2



Japan Netherlands

Austria

Dubai (UAE)

Chinese Taipei

Liechtenstein



Estonia Macao-China



Iceland

High equity

United States Czech Republic Slovak Republic

Portugal Latvia Italy Spain Luxembourg Lithuania Croatia Greece Russian Federation

Israel

Low average performance Bulgaria

Large socio-economic disparities

Hong Kong-China

Canada

Australia Switzerland    Germany Belgium  Kingdom  Poland United France Slovenia  Norway     Denmark Ireland Sweden 

Low equityHungary



Turkey

 Chile

Serbia

Low average performance

Uruguay Romania

High social equity

MexicoThailand

Trinidad and Tobago Kazakhstan Argentina

Montenegro



Brazil Jordan Colombia

Low student performanceAlbania

Tunisia Azerbaijan  Indonesia

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Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

3 Tools Standards Processes Curricula People Selection Teachers Technology Preparation Practices Principals Instruction Assessments Recruitment/induction Student Policies and alignment Support personnel Intervention learning Data systems Work organisation Families Support systems

Development Supervision Retention

Teacher policies

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The past

Student inclusion

Some students learn at high levels

The most effective systems All students learn at high levels

Andres Schleicher

Curriculum, instruction and assessment

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

4

Routine cognitive skills for lifetime jobs

Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working

Teacher quality

Taught to teach established content

High-level professional knowledge workers Work organisation

„Tayloristic‟, hierarchical

Flat, collegial, differentiated and diverse careers Teacher evaluation and accountability

Primarily to authorities

Also to peers and stakeholders

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How teachers are recruited into the profession and educated

Andres Schleicher

Great systems attract great teachers

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

5

Last year Finland had over 6000 applicants for 600 jobs.

Great systems prioritize the quality of teachers… …over the size of classes.

Salaries matter… …but career prospects, career diversity and giving teachers responsibility as professionals and leaders of reform are equally important.

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

8

Spain New Zealand Germany Australia Finland Sweden Belgium (Fl.) Scotland Belgium (Fr.) Denmark France England Korea Netherlands Austria Greece Portugal Estonia Poland Norway United States Italy Israel Slovenia Hungary Iceland Czech Republic

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

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Teacher salaries relative to workers with college degrees Ratio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25 to 64

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2010, Table 3.1 (Fig 1.1 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

Slovak Republic

Poland

United States

Sweden

Finland

Mexico

Ireland

Iceland

Norway

Hungary

Czech Republic

Austria

Italy

Denmark

Netherlands

France

New Zealand

Percentage points

United Kingdom

Australia

Japan

Greece

Germany

Luxembourg

Korea

Belgium

Switzerland

Spain

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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Portugal

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

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Contribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costs per student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004) Salary as % of GDP/capita Instruction time 1/teaching time 1/class size

High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classes Difference with OECD average

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

12

Percentage of OECD countries in which the following factors shape teacher pay

10

Years of experience as a teacher

84%

Andres Schleicher

Additional management responsibilities

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

12

Teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area

72% 66%

Special tasks (career guidance, counselling)

31%

Teaching courses in a particular field

66%

A higher initial educational qualification

A higher certification or training obtained during professional life

69% 44%

Outstanding performance in teaching Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2010. (Fig 3.6 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

0

20

40

60

80

100

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Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

13

How teachers are recruited into the profession and educated

The status of teaching is not a static attribute of culture… …but has, in some countries, changed significantly.

Top-down initiatives alone were often insufficient to achieve deep and lasting changes (You can mandate compliance but you need to unleash excellence).

School autonomy, accountability and student performance

16

Impact of school autonomy on performance in systems with and without PISA score in reading

accountability arrangements

Andres Schleicher

500

495 490

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

16

School autonomy in resource allocation Schools with more autonomy 480

Schools with less autonomy

Systems with more accountability

Systems with less accountability

System’s accountability arrangements

17 Interesting practices to bring in a wider background of teachers

Opening the teaching profession to individuals with relevant experience outside education Andres Schleicher

…not just in vocational programs.

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

17

Recognizing the skills and experience gained outside education… …and reflecting those in starting salaries.

Enabling appropriately qualified entrants, including mature student teacher trainees… …to start working and earning a salary before acquiring teacher education qualifications.

Offering more flexible approaches to teacher education… …that provide opportunities for part-time study and distance learning, and that give credits for relevant qualifications and experience .

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

18

18

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How teachers are developed in service and supported No matter how good the pre-service education for teachers is

Andres Schleicher

…it cannot prepare teachers for rapidly changing challenges throughout their careers

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

19

High-performing systems rely on ongoing professional to… …update individuals‟ knowledge of a subject in light of recent advances …update skills and approaches in light of new teaching techniques, new circumstances, and new research …enable teachers to apply changes made to curricula or teaching practice …enable schools to develop and apply new strategies concerning the curriculum and teaching practice …exchange information and expertise among teachers and others …help weaker teachers become more effective .

Effective professional development is on-going… …includes training, practice and feedback, and adequate time and follow-up support

Source: OECD, TALIS Table 3.6 (Fig 2.1 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

Australia

Belgium (Fl.)

Slovak Republic

Poland

Slovenia

Ireland

Iceland

Bulgaria

Malaysia

Korea

Estonia

Hungary

No formal induction process

Summit 11 average

Portugal

Denmark

Italy

TALIS Average

Turkey

Austria

Norway

Mexico

Malta

80

Spain

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

%

Lithuania

Brazil

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

20

20

Percentage of teachers without mentoring and induction No formal mentoring process

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

OECD Teaching and Learning International Study (TALIS)

21 21

Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity TALIS Average

% 100 90 80 70 60 50 30 20 10

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

0 Impact

Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments

40

Individual Qualification Informal Reading Courses and Professional Mentoring Observation Education and programmes dialogue to professional workshops development and peer visits to conferences collaborative improve literature network observation other schools and seminars research teaching Figure 3.15

OECD Teaching and Learning International Study (TALIS)

22 22

Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity TALIS Average

% 100 90 80 70 60 50 30 20 10

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

Impact

Participation

0 Impact

Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments

40

Individual Qualification Informal Reading Courses and Professional Mentoring Observation Education and programmes dialogue to professional workshops development and peer visits to conferences collaborative improve literature network observation other schools and seminars research teaching

23

Teacher demand for professional development is often not met, sometimes for lack of time, sometimes for lack of opportunity % 50

Among those teachers who wanted more development than they received (TALIS averages)

30 20 10

Source: OECD, TALIS Table 3.7 (Fig 2.3 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

Did not have the prerequisites

Lack of employer support

Too expensive

Family responsibilities

No suitable professional development

0

Conflict with work schedule

Andres Schleicher

40

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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24

It‟s not just about more of the same %

For what type of professional development do teachers report a high level of need? TALIS Average

70 60

Andres Schleicher

50

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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40 30 20 10 0

Teaching ICT teaching Student Instructional Subject field special skills discipline and practices learning needs behaviour students problems

Student counselling

Content and performance standards

Student assessment practices

Teaching in a multicultural setting

Classroom management

Areas are ranked in descending order of the international average where teachers report a high level of need for development. Source: OECD. Table 3.2

School management and administration

28

Employment conditions The predominant employment model remains „career-based‟…

Andres Schleicher

…but some countries have introduced position-based systems… …many countries have probationary periods… …and an increasing number require periodic renewal of licenses.

Limited but increasing career diversity…

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

28

Some efforts to improve mobility…

…both horizontally and vertically.

…between schools and with other occupations.

Countries struggle with transparency in teacher labour market… …but some have all vacancies posted, and provide websites where the information is centralized or establish a network of agencies to co-ordinate and foster recruitment activities .

Schools have become more involved in personnel management.

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Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

29

New Zealand Netherlands Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic Shanghai-China Denmark Sweden Slovenia Russian Federation United Kingdom United States Poland Hong Kong-China Switzerland Belgium hire Norway Chile Israel OECD average Ireland Australia Canada Qatar Argentina Mexico Finland Korea Spain Germany Indonesia Japan Colombia Brazil Singapore Portugal Austria Italy Greece

Percentage of public and private schools that have considerable autonomy over Selecting teachers for Dismissing teachers

Source: OECD , PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

100

80

60

40

20

0

20

40

60

80

100

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

30

30

31

Some teachers are left alone

Teachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years 100

No appraisal or feedback

90

No school evaluation

80 %

60 50 40 30 20 10

Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of teachers who have received no appraisal or feedback. Source: OECD. Table 5.1 and 5.3

Bulgaria

Malaysia

Lithuania

Slovak Republic

Estonia

Hungary

Slovenia

Korea

Poland

Denmark

Mexico

Turkey

Malta

Belgium (Fl.)

Australia

Austria

Norway

Iceland

Brazil

Ireland

Portugal

Spain

0

Italy

Andres Schleicher

70

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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32

How teachers are evaluated and compensated Criteria used to evaluate teachers include…

Andres Schleicher

…teacher qualifications, including teacher credentials, years of service, degrees, certifications and relevant professional development

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

32

…how teachers operate in the classroom setting, including attitudes, expectations and personal characteristics, as well as strategies, methods and actions employed in their interaction with students; and …measures of teacher effectiveness, based on assessment of how teachers contribute to students‟ learning outcomes as well as their knowledge of their field and pedagogical practice

In most countries, teachers value appraisal and feedback highly… …and report that it improves their job satisfaction and personal development, widens their repertoire of pedagogical practices and improves their effectiveness.

In many countries, appraisal and feedback have limited impact… …on public recognition, professional development, careers and pay.

Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for the job?

35

Opportunities for professional development activities A change in the likelihood of career advancement Public recognition from the principal and/or colleagues Changes in work responsibilites that make the job more attractive

100

%

90 80

60 50 40 30 20 10

Countries are ranked in descending order of changes in teachers' opportunities for professional development activities. Source: OECD. Table 5.5.

Belgium (Fl.)

Malta

Austria

Portugal

Turkey

Spain

Ireland

Australia

Korea

Italy

Iceland

Norway

Hungary

TALIS Average

Denmark

Mexico

Brazil

Slovak Republic

Estonia

Slovenia

Poland

Bulgaria

Lithuania

0

Malaysia

Andres Schleicher

70

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

35

Teachers‟ report on impact of appraisal and feedback in their school

36

Increased monetary or non-monetary rewards for improving quality of teaching

Increased monetary or non-monetary rewards for more innovative teaching School principal alters monetary rewards of persistently underperforming teacher Teachers will be dismissed because of sustained poor performance

80

Andres Schleicher

%

100

60

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

36

0

40 20

20 40 60 80 100

Source: OECD. Table 5.9.

37

Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

37

How much autonomy public and private schools have over salaries Establishing teachers‟ starting salaries Determining teachers‟ salaries increases

Czech Republic Netherlands Sweden United Kingdom Hungary Slovak Republic Chile Shanghai-China Russian Federation Indonesia Denmark Hong Kong-China United States OECD average Colombia Japan Australia Poland New Zealand Israel Finland Brazil Switzerland Norway Mexico Korea Estonia Slovenia Iceland Luxembourg Portugal Singapore Canada Italy Spain Germany Argentina Turkey Austria Ireland Greece Belgium

Source: OECD , PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

100

80

60

40

20

0

20

40

60

80

100

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Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

38

Coherence of policy and practice

Alignment of policies across all aspects of the system Coherence of policies over sustained periods of time Consistency of implementation Fidelity of implementation

39

Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

39 Find out more about our work at…  www.oecd.org/education  www.pisa.oecd.org  U.S. White House www.data.gov 

Thank you !

Email: [email protected]

… and remember:

Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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40

Backup slides

40

30

20

10

0

50 Andres Schleicher

60

New York, 16-17 March 2011

100

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

70

Portugal Turkey Serbia Albania Panama Kazakhstan Dubai (UAE) Indonesia Colombia Brazil Shanghai-China United States Peru Singapore Jordan Canada Trinidad and Tobago Denmark United Kingdom Australia Azerbaijan Mexico Qatar New Zealand Thailand Estonia Russian Federation Ireland Sweden Argentina Chile Iceland Chinese Taipei Italy Slovak Republic Uruguay Hong Kong-China Spain Montenegro Switzerland Kyrgyzstan Hungary Czech Republic OECD average Liechtenstein Greece Croatia Latvia Macao-China Belgium Romania Israel Netherlands Korea Austria Luxembourg Germany Norway Lithuania France Bulgaria Tunisia Finland Poland Slovenia Japan

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

41

41

%

Most of my teachers are interested in my well-being

Students‟ views of teacher-student relations

90

80

Source: OECD , PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.4.1 (Fig 2.6 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

70

60

50 New York, 16-17 March 2011

80

Kazakhstan Albania Azerbaijan Shanghai-China Portugal Canada Kyrgyzstan Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei United Kingdom United States Singapore New Zealand Turkey Dubai (UAE) Latvia Netherlands Indonesia Peru Estonia Australia Finland Belgium Korea Thailand Switzerland Russian Federation Iceland Sweden Trinidad and Tobago Qatar Jordan France Bulgaria Slovak Republic Colombia Denmark Panama OECD average Mexico Czech Republic Lithuania Macao-China Brazil Liechtenstein Chile Ireland Hungary Italy Tunisia Montenegro Norway Slovenia Romania Poland Luxembourg Serbia Germany Israel Croatia Spain Argentina Austria Uruguay Japan Greece

42

100

90

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

%

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

42

If I need extra help, I will receive it from my teachers

Students‟ views of teacher-student relations

Source: OECD , PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.4.1 (Fig 2.6 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

43

Andres Schleicher New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

43

How much autonomy individual schools have over resource allocation

Macao-China Poland Japan Korea Thailand Netherlands Czech Republic Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei New Zealand United Kingdom Indonesia Colombia Estonia Sweden Dubai (UAE) Iceland Kyrgyzstan Italy Denmark Peru Israel Lithuania Hungary Slovak Republic Romania Australia OECD average Only “principals and/or Shanghai-China Singapore Chile teachers” have considerable Liechtenstein Panama responsibility to: Austria United States Albania Brazil Slovenia Determining course content Finland Belgium Spain Qatar Norway Deciding which courses are Ireland Argentina offered Azerbaijan Germany Switzerland Trinidad and Tobago Russian Federation Latvia Mexico Canada Croatia Kazakhstan Bulgaria Turkey Luxembourg Jordan Montenegro Portugal Tunisia Uruguay Serbia Greece Source: OECD , PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession)

100

80

60

40

20

0

20

40

60

80

100

-10 Qatar

Panama

Italy

Chile

New Zealand

Hungary

Portugal

Macao-China

Korea

Hong Kong-China

Croatia

60

Denmark

Germany

Lithuania

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

Score point difference

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

44 Parental support at the beginning of 44

primary school

Score point difference between students whose parents often do (weekly or daily) and those who do not:

"talk about what they had done"

50

40

30

20

10

0

120

0 Israel Singapore Belgium Qatar Macao-China Italy France Hong Kong-China Switzerland Denmark United Kingdom Liechtenstein Dubai (UAE) Greece Kyrgyzstan Uruguay Argentina Shanghai-China Germany Spain New Zealand Australia Slovak Republic Sweden Brazil Hungary Luxembourg Mexico Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Canada OECD average Chinese Taipei Indonesia Poland Iceland Kazakhstan Panama Romania Czech Republic Japan Tunisia Peru Austria Jordan Bulgaria Norway Albania Azerbaijan Russian Federation Colombia Portugal Chile United States Lithuania Turkey Serbia Montenegro Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Croatia Finland Korea Latvia Estonia

20

New York, 16-17 March 2011

45

100

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

Score point difference International Summit on the Teaching Profession

45

Beyond schooling

Performance difference between students who had attended preprimary school for more than one year and those who did not

80

60

40

Observed performance advantage

Performance advantage after accounting for socio-economic factors

1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference 2004 3. Year of reference 2003.

Brazil2

Mexico

Portugal

Turkey

Spain

Italy

14

Greece

13

Chile2

90

Korea

Ireland

Poland

Belgium

Iceland

Australia

France

OECD average

EU19 average

1970s

Luxembourg

10

Netherlands

1

United Kingdom3

60

Finland

Hungary

1980s

New Zealand

Slovak Republic

Israel

Slovenia

1990s

Austria3

Russian Federation4

Sweden

Norway

Canada

Denmark

Switzerland

20

Germany

40

Estonia

80

Czech Republic

%

United States

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

46 A world of change in baseline qualifications 46

Approximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 und 25-34 years 1960s

100

1

23

50

30

27

0

47 Relationship between test performance and economic outcomes

Annual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points 40%

Percent addition to GDP

Andres Schleicher

35%

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

47

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100

2110

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

bn$

14000

0 United States Japan Germany United Kingdom France Italy Mexico Spain Korea Canada Turkey Australia Poland Netherlands Belgium Sweden Greece Czech Republic Austria Norway Switzerland Portugal Hungary Denmark Finland Ireland New Zealand Slovak Republic Luxembourg Iceland

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

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48

Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $) Potential increase in economic output (bn $)

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

49

560

Chinese Taipei Estonia Liechtenstein Czech Republic United Kingdom Macao-China Ireland France Iceland United States Norway

Andres Schleicher

Portugal

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

49

High science performance Finland Hong Kong-China Canada Japan New Zealand Australia Netherlands Slovenia Korea Germany Switzerland Belgium Austria 510 Hungary

Sweden Croatia Poland Denmark Slovak Republic,Spain,Lithuania Latvia Russian Federation Luxembourg Greece Italy 460

Israel

Thailand Montenegro Brazil

Turkey Jordan Romania 410Mexico Indonesia Argentina Colombia Tunisia Azerbaijan 360

Qatar

Kyrgyzstan 310 16

Average performance of 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply

Low science performance

Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

12000

0 United States Mexico Turkey Germany Italy Japan France Spain United Kingdom Poland Canada Greece Korea Australia Portugal Belgium Netherlands Norway Sweden Austria Czech Republic Switzerland Hungary Denmark Ireland Slovak Republic New Zealand Luxembourg Finland Iceland

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession

50

50

Raise everyone to minimum of 400 PISA points

bn$

14000

Potential increase in economic output (bn $)

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0% Mexico Turkey Greece Portugal Italy Luxembourg United States Spain Poland Germany Norway Hungary Slovak Republic Belgium France Denmark Austria Sweden Iceland Switzerland Czech Republic Ireland United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Netherlands Japan Canada Korea Finland

New York, 16-17 March 2011

International Summit on the Teaching Profession Andres Schleicher

Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

51

51

% currrent GDP

Raise everyone to minimum of 400 PISA points

1200%

1000%

800%

600%

400%

200%