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Paris, UNESCO. 2010. Caring and Learning. Together. A cross-national study on the integration of early childhood care and education within education ...
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Caring and Learning Together A cross-national study on the integration of early childhood care and education within education

Yoshie Kaga, John Bennett, Peter Moss

Paris, UNESCO 2010

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The author is responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. © UNESCO All rights reserved Published in 2010 Section for Early Childhood Care and Education Division of Basic Education UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy 75007 Paris France Printed in France Photo credit: © UNESCO/ASPnet ISBN: 978-92-3-104163-1

Contents Foreword


Executive Summary



Background to the project Caring and Learning Together


The issue: Split ECCE systems and their adverse effects Responses to the issue Coordination Integration The situation today The present study Aims and objectives Methodology: ways of working The cases studied The structure of the report

15 18 18 19 21 21 21 22 23 25

Integrated systems: History and processes


When, why and how? Integrating responsibility for ECCE within the education system Integration: Policy making and administration Other indicators of integration: Beyond administration and policy making The Impact on ECCE of being integrated within the education system Integrating responsibility for ECCE in the welfare system Concluding comments

29 38 44 54 62 66

Consequences and lessons from the cases that have integrated within education


Evaluations of the change What are the consequences? Sweden Slovenia New Zealand Brazil Jamaica Ghent Some lessons learned Concluding comments

69 72 72 77 80 85 88 91 94 96







Countries that have not integrated ECCE: Another perspective


The split system in practice Recognised problems of the split system Mending the split Obstacles to change What next? Concluding comments

101 105 106 108 109 111

Conclusions and recommendations


The need for this study The study itself Conclusions Integration in education – or elsewhere? Ways forward

113 113 114 120 122



Annex A: Project Document: Cross-national Research on the Integration of ECCE


Annex B: Questionnaire for the Preparation of Country and Municipal Reports




arly childhood care and education (ECCE) policy is a complex area. It is concerned not only with childcare and early education, but also the child’s health, nutrition, social welfare and protection, women’s employment and equal opportunities, and poverty issues. Given its multi-sectoral nature, developing and developed countries alike face difficulties in achieving coordinated and coherent approaches to ECCE that ensure the child’s holistic development. Recognising the crucial role that governance plays in determining the access, quality and equity of ECCE provision, UNESCO has paid particular attention to the issue over the last years. It has published a number of works on governance-related matters, such as An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Education and Care (Haddad, 2002), Cross-sectoral Coordination in Early Childhood: Some Lessons Learned (Choi, 2003), Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Care and Education in Sen