Contribution of renewables to Energy Security - International Energy ...

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INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE L’ENERGIE

CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLES TO ENERGY SECURITY IEA INFORMATION PAPER

S A M A N T H A ÖLZ, R A L P H SIMS A N D N I C O L A I KIRCHNER INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY © OECD/IEA, April 2007

Table of contents Acknowledgements............................................................................................................... 3 Foreword .............................................................................................................................. 5 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................. 7 1. Risks to energy security ............................................................................................... 13 1.1 Risks for developing countries............................................................................. 15 1.2 Policy responses to energy security risks ............................................................ 15 1.3 Energy security implications of renewable energy technologies........................... 16 2. Current energy use by market segment........................................................................ 19 2.1. Electricity production ........................................................................................... 19 2.2. Heat .................................................................................................................... 21 2.3. Transport............................................................................................................. 22 3. Renewable energy technologies in the energy mix and effects on energy security....... 23 3.1. Electricity production and the impact of variability................................................ 23 3.1.1 Contribution of renewable energy technologies to electricity production .......... 26 3.1.2 Security effects of grid integration of renewables............................................. 28 3.1.3 The physical security advantages of renewable electricity generation ............. 33 3.1.4 Summary ......................................................................................................... 35 3.2. Heat production ................................................................................................... 36 3.2.1. Contribution of renewable energy technologies to heat production in OECD countries....................................................................................................................... 37 3.2.3 Regional dimension of renewable heating – energy security implications ........ 46 3.2.4 Local resources and global trade – implications for energy security................. 47 3.2.5 Effects of renewable heating on fossil fuel demand ......................................... 48 3.2.6. Challenges and barriers................................................................................... 49 3.2.7. Summary ......................................................................................................... 50 3.3 Biofuel production for transport............................................................................... 51 3.3.1 Current role of biofuels worldwide.................................................................... 54 3.3.2 Fuel standards and engines............................................................................. 58 3.3.3 Economic feasibility ......................................................................................... 58 3.3.5 Summary ......................................................................................................... 63 4 Conclusions.................................................................................................................. 64 5 References................................................................................................................... 66

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Acknowledgements The main author of this paper is Samantha Ölz, Policy Analyst with