Copyright 2009 Paul Droubie - IDEALS @ Illinois - University of Illinois ...

Hitachi itself had contributed the latest in lighting technology for indoor score ..... Corporation (IBM) provided the Japanese with a data center, 8 computers in all, ...
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Copyright 2009 Paul Droubie

PLAYING THE NATION: 1964 TOKYO SUMMER OLYMPICS AND JAPANESE IDENTITY

BY PAUL DROUBIE

DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009

Urbana, Illinois Doctoral Committee: Professor Ronald P. Toby, Chair Professor Maria Todorova Associate Professor Karen Kelsky Assistant Professor Robert T. Tierney

Abstract This dissertation explores the performance and consumption of a reinvented Japanese national identity surrounding the 1964 Tokyo Summer Olympics. This event marked an important psychological turning point for many Japanese, who saw it as marking their reemergence into the world community. National identity is often hidden in the daily assumptions and practices of members of the nation. Prestige events like the Olympics bring these to the surface and make them easier to analyze as the contents for performance and consumption of Self, for both Self and Other, are prepared. Furthermore, the specifics of Japanese national identity at this time made the Olympics a near perfect venue for this. I argue that an examination of this discourse reveals several tropes of Self shared across the mainstream of Japanese national identity in the mid 1960s. The first was that Japan had rebuilt from wartime destruction and was now a global scientific and technological leader. Second, the country had a mixture of Western modernity and Japanese tradition that made it uniquely suited to be an interlocutor between West and non-West. The government, urban spaces and public manners were modern, yet culturally, Japanese engaged in a self-Orientalizing discourse. Third, Japan was no longer the despised enemy from the Second World War, but was now a uniquely peaceful and internationalist country. The Olympics provided the stage upon which to perform this identity, but also a lens through which to study it.

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In memory of Dad

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Acknowledgments I owe a great debt to many different people in preparing this work. First and foremost, to Ronald P. Toby for his unflagging advice, support and encouragement. I also thank my other committee members, Karen Kelsky, Robert T. Tierney and Maria Todorova, for their support, feedback and patience. Kevin M. Doak and Byron Marshall helped shape my academic path along the way as well. During my research in Japan, I received guidance from Yoshimi Shun’ya. Satō Sumiko, archivist at the Japan Olympic Committee Archives, provided immeasurable help and support. The staff at the Prince Chichibu Memorial Sports Museum and Library were also very helpful. This research was supported by the Fulbright Foundation. Finally, I thank my wife, Minako, for her unfailing love and support through research and writing. Needless to say, any and all errors and oversights are my responsibility alone.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 – Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 1 Chapter 2 – A Host Reborn ……………………………………………………………. 22 Chapter 3 – Fastest, Highest, Strongest ………………………………………………... 58 Chapter 4 – Modern Place, Oriental Self ……………………………………………… 97 Chapter 5 – Phoenix Rising……………………………………………………………. 127 Chapter 6 – Conclusion………………………………………………………………… 169 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………… 173

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Chapter 1 – Introduction “I declare open the Olympics Games of Tokyo celebrating the XVIII Olympia.” Emperor Hirohito, October 10, 1964 On October 10, 1964, Emperor Hirohito declared the Tokyo Summer Olympiad open. These Summer Games were important to the Olympic movement as symbolically opening hosting to the non-Western and non-white world. They were also crucial to Japanese collective memory as a marker to the end of Japan’s time as a world pariah for its role in the Greater East Asian War and World War II. These Games saw the creation, performance and consumption of a new national id