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Rediscovering Distributed Systems Steve Vinoski Basho Technologies Cambridge, MA USA http://basho.com @stevevinoski [email protected] http://steve.vinoski.net/

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Distributed Systems are Everywhere

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Distributed Systems are Difficult

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On The Shoulders of Giants • "Distributed systems" describes an enormous history of research and practice • Dist Sys research/practice addresses many issues from many angles • Know the issues so you can choose the right trade-offs Thursday, October 17, 13

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Scope • Way way too much to cover • This talk is based in part on my personal history and experiences • Others would give a completely different talk

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1960s

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1960s • Beginnings of concurrent systems • 1965: Dijkstra's semaphores • Beginnings of computer networking • J.C.R. Licklider's 1962 dream of an "Intergalactic Computer Network" would eventually lead to the Internet • Beginning of OO: Simula 67 Thursday, October 17, 13

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Distributed Systems Failure • 1965 Northeast blackout affected 7 US states and Ontario • A single misconfigured relay caused massive cascading failures • Then and now: distributed systems failure is not uncommon

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Dijkstra and Multiprogramming • 1968: "The Structure of the 'THE' Multiprogramming System" • Describes a whole system designed as a set of hierarchical cooperating sequential processes • System resources shared via mutual synchronization via semaphores Thursday, October 17, 13

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Dijkstra and Multiprogramming

"At the time this was written the testing had not yet been completed, but the resulting system is guaranteed to be flawless." —E.W. Dijkstra "The Structure of the 'THE' Multiprogramming System"

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1970s

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1970s Issues • Interprocess Communication • Resource sharing • Programming languages and distributed computing • Application-to-application protocols

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Interprocess Communication (IPC) • "Interprocess Communication Facilities for Network Operating Systems", Akkoyunlu, Bernstein, Schantz, 1974 • Discusses IPC over different network topologies • Compares connection-oriented and messageoriented IPC facilities • Discusses concerns of how sender and receiver might find and identify each other Thursday, October 17, 13

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IPC

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IPC

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Resource Sharing "Users and administrators of a small computer often desire more service than it can provide. In a network environment additional services can be provided to the small computer, and in turn to the users of the small computer, by one or more other computers." —Akkoyunlu, Bernstein, Schantz "Interprocess Communication Facilities for Network Operating Systems"

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Resource Sharing

• "An Operational System for Computer Resource Sharing", Cosell et al., 1975 • Ideas like today's cloud computing

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Resource Sharing "Further , it was becoming clear that for many users, in particular those whose access to the network was via TIPs or other nonTENEX hosts, it should not actually matter which host provides the TENEX service so long as the users could do their computing in the manner to which they had become accustomed." —Cosell et al. "An Operational System for Computer Res