DRAFTING RULES 2012 Edition

National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws 111 N. Wabash Ave., Suite 1010 Chicago, Illinois 60602 www.uniformlaws.org

UNIFORM LAW COMMISSION DRAFTING RULES FOR UNIFORM AND MODEL ACTS As Approved by the Executive Committee of the Uniform Law Commission July, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................1 PART 1. GENERAL RULE 101. RULE 102. RULE 103. RULE 104. RULE 105. RULE 106. RULE 107. RULE 108. RULE 109.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE .......................................................................................1 SUBJECT OF SENTENCE........................................................................................1 TENSE, MOOD, NUMBER, AND VOICE ..............................................................2 GENDER ....................................................................................................................3 CONSISTENCY. .......................................................................................................3 BREVITY ...................................................................................................................3 PUNCTUATION ........................................................................................................4 CAPITALIZATION ...................................................................................................5 NUMBERS ................................................................................................................ 6 PART 2. WORDS AND PHRASES

RULE 201. RULE 202. RULE 203. RULE 204. RULE 205. RULE 206. RULE 207. RULE 208.

CHOICE OF WORDS AND PHRASES IN GENERAL...........................................7 LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND CONDITIONS ..........................................10 USE OF “SHALL”, “MAY”, “MUST”, “MIGHT”, AND “CAN” .........................12 USE OF “MAY NOT” AND “MUST NOT” ...........................................................14 USE OF “SHOULD” AND “OUGHT”....................................................................14 REFERENCE TO ANTECEDENTS; USE OF “WHICH” AND “THAT”.............15 USE OF “WHO”, “WHOM”, AND “WHOSE” ......................................................16 USE OF “SUCH”, “SAID”, AND “AFORESAID” ...............................................16 PART 3. DEFINITIONS

RULE 301. RULE 302. RULE 303. RULE 304. RULE 305. RULE 306.

FORMULATION OF DEFINITIONS .....................................................................17 USE OF DEFINITIONS. ..........................................................................................19 ARRANGEMENT OF DEFINITIONS ....................................................................20 STANDARD DEFINITIONS: “ELECTRONIC”, “RECORD”, AND “SIGN” ......22 STANDARD DEFINITION: “PERSON” ................................................................22 STANDARD DEFINITION: “STATE”. ..................................................................22 i

PART 4. STRUCTURE AND FORMAT RULE 401. RULE 402. RULE 403. RULE 404. RULE 405. RULE 406. RULE 407. RULE 408. RULE 409. RULE 410. RULE 411. RULE 412. RULE 413. RULE 414.

SHORT TITLE OF ACT ..........................................................................................23 SECTIONS AND LOWER SUBDIVISIONS: GENERAL RULES. ......................23 NUMBERING OF SECTIONS AND LOWER SUBDIVISIONS. .........................26 ORDER OF ARRANGEMENT OF PROVISIONS OF ACT .................................27 SERIES AND TABULATIONS ..............................................................................28 REFERENCES TO OTHER PROVISIONS OF ACT .............................................30 USE OF BRACKETS ..............................................................................................32 ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS ............................................................