early childhood development: a statistical snapshot - Unicef

analyses from both the developed and developing world point to the same .... Data for Lebanon, Morocco and Myanmar refer to children aged 0 to 59 months.
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EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT: A STATISTICAL SNAPSHOT Building Better Brains and Sustainable Outcomes for Children

© UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0231/Estey

Over 200 million children under 5 years of age in low- and

capital and promote sustainable development. Economic

middle-income countries – and increasing numbers in OECD

analyses from both the developed and developing world point

countries and emerging economies – will face inequalities

to the same conclusion: Investing in the early years yields

and fail to reach their full developmental potential because

some of the highest rates of return to families, societies and

they grow up with a broad range of risk factors. These include, most notably, poverty; poor health, including malnutrition and infection with HIV; high levels of family

countries. The case for investment can be made not only with respect to returns but also to the cost of inaction.2

and environmental stress and exposure to violence, abuse,

Science has demonstrated that early childhood interventions

neglect and exploitation; and inadequate care and learning

are important because they help mitigate the impact of

opportunities.1 These factors also include risks that result from emergencies related to conflict, climate change and global demographic shifts associated with migration and urbanization.

adverse early experiences. If not addressed, such experiences can lead to poor health (including obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes), low educational attainment, economic dependency, increased violence and crime, and heightened

Early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most cost-

risk of substance abuse and depression – all of which add to

effective investments a country can make to build human

the costs and burden to society.

1 Walker, S. P., et al., 'Child Development: Risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries', The Lancet, vol. 369, 2007, pp. 145–157; Grantham-McGregor, S., et al., 'Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries', The Lancet, vol. 369, 2007, pp. 60–70. 2 Britto, P. R., P. L. Engle and C. S. Super, editors, Handbook of Early Childhood Development Research and its Impact on Global Policy, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.

© UNICEF/NYHQ2004-1202/Vitale

Protecting young children from violence and abuse is not only a human rights obligation; it is also the foundation from which children can develop to their fullest potential and achieve better health, learning and social development outcomes. Through a combination of ECD and child protection interventions (including direct support to families and strengthening systems to be more responsive and accountable), young children can be protected from TECTION O violence and given the opR portunity to develop and grow in a healthy way, from the very first years N of life.

Adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the first two years of life is necessary for normal brain development, laying the foundation for the development of cognitive, motor and socio-emotional skills throughout childhood and adulthood. Appropriate breastfeeding practices can contribute to a child’s healthy emotional and cognitive development. In contrast, lack of adequate nutrition (including iodine) and other related consequences such as stunting and low birthweight can compromise children’s motor and cognitive development. Children with restricted developHEA NUT L ment of these skills durR ing early life are at risk for later neuropsychological problems, poor school achievement, early school drop-out, low-skilled employment, and poor care of their own children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty.

CATIO DU

P

HEALTH AND NUTRITION

& TH ION IT

SAFETY AND PROTECTION

IMULAT ST& CARE I

E

ON

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Investment in good quality early childhood education services prior to entering school improves learning outcomes for children. It also enhances the efficiency of the school system by reducing repetition and drop-out and improving achievement, especially among girls and marginalized groups.

STIMULATION AND CARE Early stimulation and interaction with parents and caregivers jumpstart brain development and promote well-being. Extensive research shows that nurturing, stimulating interaction between young children and their

EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

parents and caregivers positively and permanently strengthens the ability to learn – and may even change brain function for life.

The brain requires multiple inputs: It requires stimulation and care to spark neural connections across multiple regions of the brain to increase its capacity and function. It requires access to good quality early childhood education programmes that provide children with early cognitive and language skills, build social competency and support emotional development. It requires good health and nutrition at the right time to feed and nourish the architecture of the body, including the brain, during the sensitive periods of development. It requires safety and protection to buffer against stress and allow absorption of nutrients and growth and development of the nervous system - including the brain. All these aspects of the environment must work together to build a better brain.

STIMULATION AND CARE In almost all countries or areas, more than half of children are engaged in early learning activities by adults in the household, but less than half have access to three or more books in the home Percentage of children aged 36 to 59 months with whom an adult household member has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past three days

Percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months who have three or more children’s books at home

Trinidad and Tobago Montenegro Belarus Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina Jamaica Georgia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Kazakhstan Democratic People's Republic of Korea Uzbekistan Thailand Guyana Kyrgyzstan Albania Belize Somalia Viet Nam Central African Republic Tajikistan Afghanistan Suriname Tunisia Chad Iran (Islamic Republic of) Syrian Arab Republic Nigeria Cameroon Togo Democratic Republic of the Congo Bangladesh Iraq Myanmar State of Palestine Lao People's Democratic Republic Mongolia Lebanon Mauritania Sierra Leone Bhutan Côte d'Ivoire Swaziland Gambia Honduras Mozambique Ghana Djibouti Morocco Burundi Yemen Mali Burkina Faso

Ukraine Belarus Trinidad and Tobago Democratic People's Republic of Korea Montenegro Kyrgyzstan Serbia Georgia Jamaica Bosnia and Herzegovina Guyana The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Kazakhstan Thailand Uzbekistan Belize Iran (Islamic Republic of) Albania Syrian Arab Republic Lebanon Suriname Mongolia Morocco Viet Nam Tunisia Tajikistan Djibouti State of Palestine Honduras Yemen Bhutan Ghana Nigeria Iraq Lao People's Democratic Republic Côte d'Ivoire Swaziland Cameroon Mozambique Afghanistan Sierra Leone Togo Gambia Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Chad Mali 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Notes: Activities to promote learning and school readiness include: reading books to the child; telling stories to the child; singing songs to the child; taking the child outside the home; playing with the child; and spending time with the child naming, counting or drawing things. Data for the Islamic Republic of Iran differ from the standard definition. Data for Lebanon, Morocco and Myanmar refer to children aged 0 to 59 months. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2012.

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Note: Data for the Islamic Republic of Iran and Morocco differ from the standard definition. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2012.

HEALTH AND NUTRITION Poorer children are far more likely than their richer counterparts to experience stunted growth

Percentage of children worldwide put to the breast within one hour of delivery; exclusively breastfed; receiving solid, semi-solid and soft food; and continuing to breastfeed at specified ages

Percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months who are moderately or severely stunted, by wealth quintile

Birth

Globally, less than 40 per cent of infants are exclusively breastfed

Poorest quintile Fourth quintile

Second quintile Richest quintile

Middle quintile

100

Early initiation of breastfeeding (within one hour of birth)

43

80 Exclusive breastfeeding (0 - 5 months)

38

60

Introduction to solid, semi-solid or soft foods (6 - 8 months)

55

Continued breastfeeding at 1 year (12 - 15 months)

40

20

75

0

Continued breastfeeding at 2 years* (20 - 23 months)

Sub-Saharan Africa

58

0

20

40

60

80

100

* Excludes China. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2008-2012, with the exception of India (2005-2006).

More than 30 million infants worldwide were at risk of iodine deficiency disorders in 2012 Number of newborns unprotected and protected from iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) as assessed through household consumption of adequately iodized salt, in millions

140

120

South Asia

Least developed countries

World*

* Excludes China. Notes: Estimates are based on a subset of 55 countries covering 55 per cent of the population of children aged 0 to 59 months worldwide. Regional estimates represent data covering at least 50 per cent of the regional population. Data coverage was insufficient to calculate regional estimates for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North Africa. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2007-2011, with the exception of India (2005-2006).

Low birthweight is highest in South Asia Percentage of newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth, by region

Sub-Saharan Africa

13

Eastern and Southern Africa

Newborns unprotected from IDDs Newborns protected from IDDs

East Asia and Pacific*

11

West and Central Africa

14

100 105

80

28

South Asia East Asia and Pacific

6

Latin America and Caribbean

60

9

40 20 10

0

6

9 8

Eastern and West and Southern Africa Central Africa

28 3

East Asia and Pacific

Least developed countries

25 34

13

World

15

10

South Asia

World

Notes: Estimates are based on a subset of 57 countries covering 60 per cent of the total population worldwide, applied to total births worldwide. Regional estimates represent data covering at least 50 per cent of the regional population. Data coverage was insufficient to calculate regional estimates for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North Africa. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2008-2012.

0

20

40

60

80

100

Notes: Estimates are based on a subset of 84 countries covering 65 per cent of the births worldwide. Regional estimates represent data covering at least 50 per cent of the regional population. Data coverage was insufficient to calculate regional estimates for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Middle East and North Africa. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2008-2012, with the exception of India (2005-2006).

SAFETY AND PROTECTION Violent discipline is widespread

In the Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, more than half of children under age 5 were left with inadequate care in the previous week

Percentage of children aged 2 to 4 years who experienced any violent discipline (psychological aggression and/or physical punishment) in the past month

Percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months left alone or in the care of another child under 10 years old in the past week

Tunisia Ghana State of Palestine Cameroon Yemen Togo Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Jordan Swaziland Nigeria Morocco Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Congo Suriname Vanuatu Haiti Liberia Gambia Mauritania Lebanon Algeria Jamaica Syrian Arab Republic Trinidad and Tobago Niger Chad Barbados Burkina Faso Iraq Guyana Republic of Moldova Guinea-Bissau Azerbaijan Viet Nam Sierra Leone Argentina Albania Belize Dominican Republic Serbia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Tajikistan Saint Lucia Lao People's Democratic Republic Georgia Belarus Armenia Montenegro Djibouti Afghanistan Costa Rica Bosnia and Herzegovina Ukraine Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Panama Mongolia

Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Côte d'Ivoire Chad Togo Afghanistan Nigeria Yemen Mali Mozambique Sierra Leone Cameroon Mauritania Ghana Gambia Syrian Arab Republic Democratic People's Republic of Korea Iran (Islamic Republic of) Swaziland Bhutan Lao People's Democratic Republic State of Palestine Tunisia Thailand Albania Tajikistan Djibouti Guyana Kyrgyzstan Ukraine Viet Nam Morocco Lebanon Mongolia Georgia Iraq Suriname Montenegro The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Honduras Belarus Jamaica Belize Bosnia and Herzegovina Trinidad and Tobago Serbia

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Note: Data for the Islamic Republic of Iran differ from the standard definition. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2012.

Even the youngest children are exposed to violent acts of discipline Percentage of children aged 2 to 4 years who experienced any discipline in the past month, by type

Shouted, yelled or screamed at Spanked, hit or slapped with bare hand Shook Hit/slapped on hand, arm or leg Called dumb/lazy Hit on the bottom or elsewhere with object Hit/slapped on face, head or ears Beat with an object/beat as hard as one could 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Notes: Data for Belarus differ from the standard definition. Data for Kyrgyzstan refer to children aged 3 to 4 years. Data for Panama refer to children aged 1 to 4 years. For Argentina, the sample was national and urban (municipalities with a population of more than 5,000), since the country’s rural population is scattered and accounts for less than 10 per cent of the total. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2013.

Violent methods Non-violent methods

Explained why behaviour was wrong Took away privileges Gave something else to do 0

10

20 30

40 50

Note: These are weighted averages based on comparable data for 54 countries or areas. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS and DHS, 2005-2013.

60

70

80 90 100

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Fewer than 50 per cent of children are attending early childhood education programmes in a majority of countries or areas Percentage of children aged 36 to 59 months who attend some form of early childhood education programme

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0

Democratic People's Republic of Korea Belarus Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Viet Nam Ghana Ukraine Lebanon Thailand Mongolia Guyana Tunisia Serbia Georgia Nigeria Albania Morocco Kazakhstan Suriname Swaziland Belize Nepal Cameroon Montenegro Togo Sao Tome and Principe Lao People's Democratic Republic Myanmar The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Senegal Sudan Iran (Islamic Republic of) Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Honduras Gambia Botswana State of Palestine Bangladesh Sierra Leone Mauritania Djibouti Bosnia and Herzegovina Tajikistan Mali Guinea-Bissau Bhutan Syrian Arab Republic South Sudan Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Burundi Chad Côte d'Ivoire Iraq Yemen Somalia Burkina Faso Afghanistan

10

Note: Data for the Islamic Republic of Iran, Nepal and Senegal differ from the standard definition. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2012.

Across all countries, the poorest children are disadvantaged when it comes to attendance in early childhood education programmes

In all 28 countries or areas with available data, less than half of children are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy

Percentage of children aged 36 to 59 months who attend some form of early childhood education programme, by wealth quintile

Percentage of children aged 36 to 59 months who are developmentally on track in the literacy-numeracy domain

100 90 80

Children in the richest quintile

70 60 50 40 30

Children in the poorest quintile are more likely to be attending some form of ECE

Children in the richest quintile are more likely to be attending some form of ECE

20 10 0 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Children in the poorest quintile Note: Each dot represents a country. Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS, DHS and other nationally representative surveys, 2005-2012.

Belarus Belize The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Nigeria Tunisia Serbia Kazakhstan Ghana Bosnia and Herzegovina Bhutan Viet Nam Suriname Lao People's Democratic Republic Mauritania State of Palestine Cameroon Iraq Swaziland Mongolia Democratic People's Republic of Korea Gambia Democratic Republic of the Congo Togo Honduras Sierra Leone Central African Republic Mali Chad 0

10

20

Source: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on MICS and DHS, 2009-2012.

30

40

50

© UNICEF/NYHQ2006-0162/Kamber

For information on the data contained in this brochure: UNICEF Data and Analytics Section Division of Data, Research and Policy 3 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, USA Tel: +1 212 326 7000 Email: [email protected] data.unicef.org For information on programmatic work on early childhood development: UNICEF Early Childhood Development Section Programme Division 3 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, USA Tel: +1 212 326 7000 Email: [email protected] www.unicef.org/earlychildhood/