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Evidence review: Early childhood development and the social determinants of health inequities

Dr. Tim Moore, Dr. Myfanwy McDonald and Harriet McHugh-Dillon

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Early childhood development and the social determinants of health inequities: A review of the evidence

Dr Tim Moore, Dr Myfanwy McDonald and Harriet McHugh-Dillon The Centre for Community Child Health Murdoch Childrens Research Institute The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.

September 2015

Acknowledgements This paper was written by: Dr. Tim Moore, Senior Research Fellow Dr. Myfanwy McDonald, Senior Project Officer Harriet McHugh-Dillon, Project Officer

Guidance in the initial stages was provided by: Associate Professor Sharon Goldfeld

The Centre for Community Child Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute The Royal Children’s Hospital 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052 Website: www.rch.org.au/ccch Suggested citation: Moore, T., McDonald, M. & McHugh-Dillon, H. (2014). Early childhood development and the social determinants of health inequities: A review of the evidence. Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health at the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and the Royal Children’s Hospital.

Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1 2. Methodology ........................................................................................................................... 4 3. What are the causes of inequities during early childhood and how do these inequities impact upon health and development during this period? ........................................................................ 5 Socioeconomic, political and cultural level ..................................................................................... 5 Daily living conditions ................................................................................................................... 16 Individual health-related behaviours and attitudes ..................................................................... 28 Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 33 4. What is the relationship between health and development inequities during the early years and subsequent health outcomes? .................................................................................... 34 How does what happens during the early years impact upon subsequent health outcomes? ... 34 Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 40 5. What can be done to reduce inequities during early childhood? .............................................. 41 Socioeconomic, political and cultural context .............................................................................. 42 Daily living conditions context ............................................................................................. 46 Individual health-related behaviours and attitudes .............................................................. 54 Summary ............................................................................................................................ 59 6. Discussion .............................................................................................................................. 60 Socioeconomic, political and cultural context .....................