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Electronic Navigation Systems 3rd edition

Electronic Navigation Systems Laurie Tetley

IEng FIEIE

Principal Lecturer in Navigation and Communication Systems and

David Calcutt

PhD MSc DipEE CEng MIEE

Formerly Senior Lecturer, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Portsmouth

OXFORD

AUCKLAND

BOSTON

JOHANNESBURG

MELBOURNE

NEW DELHI

Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801–2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published Electronic Aids to Navigation 1986 Reprinted 1988 Second edition published as Electronic Aids to Navigation: Position Fixing 1991 Third edition 2001 © L. Tetley and D. Calcutt 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 0LP. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Tetley, L. (Laurence), 1941– Electronic navigation systems. – 3rd ed. 1. Electronics in navigation I. Title II. Calcutt, D. (David), 1935– 623.8'504 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0 7506 51385

Composition by Genesis Typesetting, Laser Quay, Rochester, Kent Printed and bound in Great Britain

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements

ix xi

Chapter 1 Radio wave propagation and the frequency spectrum 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Maritime navigation systems and their frequencies 1.3 Radio wave radiation 1.4 Frequency, wavelength and velocity 1.5 Radio frequency spectrum 1.6 Radio frequency bands 1.7 Radio wave propagation 1.8 Signal fading 1.9 Basic antenna theory 1.10 Glossary 1.11 Summary 1.12 Revision questions

1 1 1 2 4 5 6 8 13 14 19 20 21

Chapter 2 Depth sounding systems 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The characteristics of sound in seawater 2.3 Transducers 2.4 Depth sounding principles 2.5 A generic echo sounding system 2.6 A digitized echo sounding system 2.7 A microcomputer echo sounding system 2.8 Glossary 2.9 Summary 2.10 Revision questions

22 22 22 27 31 35 38 38 41 43 44

Chapter 3 Speed measurement 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Speed measurement using water pressure 3.3 Speed measurement using electromagnetic induction 3.4 Speed measurement using acoustic correlation techniques

45 45 45 52 57

vi

Contents

3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

The Doppler principle Principles of speed measurement using the Doppler effect Doppler speed logging systems Glossary Summary Revision questions

60 63 72 85 85 86

Chapter 4 Loran-C 4.1 Introduction 4.2 System principles 4.3 Basics of the Loran-C System 4.4 Loran-C charts 4.5 Position fixing using the Loran-C System 4.6 Loran-C coverage 4.7 Loran-C receivers 4.8 Glossary 4.9 Summary 4.10 Revision questions

88 88 89 93 102 107 112 115 137 139 140

Chapter 5 Satellite navigation 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Basic satellite theory 5.3 The Global Positioning System (GPS) 5.4 The position fix 5.5 Dilution of Precision (DOP) 5.6 Satellite pass predictions 5.7 System errors 5.8 Differential GPS (DGPS) 5.9 GPS antenna systems 5.10 GPS receiver designation 5.11 Generic GPS receiver architecture