Evening Star; 9781101158500; 2001; Penguin, 2001; Catherine ...

entities: Venus, Evening Star, and Morning Star. Morning Star C Evening Star . â ... RUTH BARCAN MARCUS is said to express a 'true identity', yet they are not ...
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Evening Star; 9781101158500; 2001; Penguin, 2001; Catherine Coulter Identity through possible worlds: some questions, it leads us to perplexing con- clusions: for example, to the conclusion that every entity exists in every possible world and therefore, presumably, that everything is an ens necessarium. Why assume that necessarily the evening star is identical with the evening star. Semantics in generative grammar, an action of flying to the Morning Star is identical with an action of flying to the Evening Star; but equally, an eclipse of the Morning Star is an eclipse of the Evening Star. Our ordinary talk of events, of causes and effects, requires constant use of the idea of different descriptions. Ontological promiscuity, one way of stating the problem is this. Why is it that if (14) John believes the Evening Star is rising. and if the Evening Star is identical to the Morning Star, it is not necessarily true that. The existence of the Evening Star and the Moromg Star is ex- pressed by Ezist(Qi) ^ Ezist(Q2. The problem of interpreting modal logic, it leads us to hold, eg, that there is no such ball of matter as the so-called planet Venus, but rather at least three distinct entities: Venus, Evening Star, and Morning Star. Morning Star C Evening Star . â ¢ (Morning Star C Morning Star). Therefore, according. What's new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension, given: Someone searched in vain for the unified field. New: That someone was Einstein. (4) The morning star is the evening star. Given: There is a morning star (just one). There is an evening star (just one). New: The first is identified as the second. Deviant logic, fuzzy logic: beyond the formalism, those ancient astronomers Frege worried about, who believed the Morning Star was not the Evening Star, believed of Venus as a heavenly body that appears in the morning that it was not the Evening Star, but be- lieved of Venus as a heavenly body that appears in the evening. Individuation and reference in memory: Proper names and definite descriptions, two distinct labels. The classic illustration is the morning star-evening star example from the history of astronomy: The planet Venus was identified by two proper names, the morning star and the evening star. The discovery that. The public menace of blight: Urban renewal and the private uses of eminent domain, 1. See George Beveridge, Suit Challenges Slum Program for Southwest, EVENING STAR, Dec. 27, 1952, at A12; George Beveridge, Fund to Press Project B Fight in Court Sought, EVENING STAR, Nov. 17, 1953, at B1. 2. US CONST. amend. V (emphasis added. Physiological role of pleasure, judith Ran- dal, winner of the Lasker Award for medical science writing, believes that 1970 may be remembered as the year when the control, if not the conquest, of some common forms of cancer became a truly achievable goal (Washington Evening Star, 31 December 1970. Ontology, metadata, and semiotics, as an example, Frege cited the terms morning star and evening star. Both terms. CP 2.228) The terms morning star and evening star are distinct signs that create dif- ferent concepts or interpretants in the mind of the listener. Both concepts. A study in the logic of self-consciousness, since the morning star is in fact identical with the evening star, there is a way of referring univocally to the evening star as Z and Hintikka believes that Z is identical with the morning star. Yet it would be false in ordinary language. Modalities and intensional languages, the argument is familiar: (10) The evening star eq the morning star 307 Page 6. RUTH BARCAN MARCUS is said to express a 'true identity', yet they are not validly intersubstitut- able in (11) It is necessary that the evening star is the evening star. The rebuttals are also familiar. Thinking and the Structure of the World, 1) Tom believes that the morning star is Venus. (2) Tom does not believe that the evening star is Venus. (3) The morning star = the evening star. On this naive solution, Frege's (1) and (2) establish that the evening star and the morning star are really different entities. Why meaning (probably) isn't conceptual role, thus, it's plausible that the expressions 'The Morning Star' and 'The Evening Star' are both attached to the same nonlinguistic thing (viz. If they did, you couldn't deny that the Morning Star is the Evening Star without self contradiction or assert that it is without tautology. Logical necessity, physical necessity, ethics, and quantifiers, the interesting cases, however, are those in which the formula 0 is not a sentence; that is, when 0 contains free variables, as in 'for some x, it is logically necessary that x is identical with the Evening Star.' This example is advanced by Quine (in 'Notes on Meaning and Necessity. Using encyclopedic knowledge for named entity disambiguation, venus (planet) Planet Venus Morning Star, Planets of the Solar System, Evening Star Planets, Solar System, ... Table 1: Examples of Wikipedia titles, aliases and categories. In his example, the planet Venus may be referred to using the phrases morning star and evening star. The problem of the morning star and the evening star, if it is granted that (3) and (4) are true, as indeed they seem to be if by necessary is meant logically necessary, then the claim can be made that the Morning Star has a property or attribute not possessed by the Evening Star, namely the property of being necessarily. Sensations and brain processes, you might as well say that a nation of slug-abeds, who never saw the morning star or knew of its existence, or who had never thought of the expression the Morning Star, but who used the expression the Evening Star perfectly well, could not use this expression to refer. Notes on existence and necessity, the names 'Evening Star' and 'Morning Star', for example, are not synonymous, having been applied each to a certain ball of matter according to a different criterion. The identity: (14) Evening Star = Morning Star is a truth of astronomy, not following merely from the m the words. 10 The theory theory, if the evening star appears at the same place in the heavens every evening we may make the empirical generalization that it will continue to appear at that place this evening (without any theoretical notions of why this may be the case. by WV Quine