Evidence Review: Loneliness in Later Life - Age UK

Evidence Review: Loneliness in Later Life. Contents. Key stats . ...... Ethnicity and language: There is evidence that ethnic minority elders may be among the most ...... 68 Ekwall A.K. , Sivberg B. and Hallberg I .R. (2005) 'Loneliness as a ...
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Evidence Review: Loneliness in Later Life Contents Key stats .................................................................................................................................................. 2 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 3 Why loneliness? .............................................................................................................................. 3 Why do we get lonely?........................................................................................................................ 4 2

Measuring loneliness ...................................................................................................................... 4 Measuring and quantifying loneliness ................................................................................................ 4 Direct measures of subjective loneliness........................................................................................ 4 Multi-dimensional instruments to measure of loneliness .............................................................. 5 Loneliness as part of wider well-being scales ................................................................................. 6

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Factors associated with loneliness in later life ............................................................................... 7 Other factors associated with loneliness ............................................................................................ 8

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The impact of loneliness on older people....................................................................................... 9

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What works? ................................................................................................................................. 10 Group activities ................................................................................................................................. 10 Specialised groups targeting older people ................................................................................... 11 Community engagement .............................................................................................................. 11 One-on-one interventions ................................................................................................................ 11 Befriending .................................................................................................................................... 11 Gatekeeping (Community Navigator or Wayfinder initiatives) .................................................... 12 Internet ............................................................................................................................................. 12 Interventions for special groups ....................................................................................................... 13 Men ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Government policy............................................................................................................................ 14

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What are the challenges and barriers? ......................................................................................... 14 Difficulties in finding lonely older people ......................................................................................... 14 Attitudes of older people .................................................................................................................. 15 Health and disability ......................................................................................................................... 15 Transport...........................................................................................................................................