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2.4.6 Injuries and Illnesses at the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™. 34 ...... developed some observation regarding injuries in older vs. younger age groups ...
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F-MARC - Football for Health 20 years of F-MARC Research and Education 1994 - 2014 Editors: )HŔ´#UNŔ¨J Astrid Junge

TABLE OF CONTENTS | FOOTBALL MEDICINE PROJECTS

Table of Contents

Preface 1

Executive Summary

2

2

Epidemiology of Football Injury

4

2.1 Review of Literature 2.1.1 Football Injuries before 2000 2.1.2 Football Injuries in Children and Adolescent Players

4 4 6

2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

Definitions of Injuries and Assessment Methods Influence of Definition and Data Collection on Injury Incidence Consensus on the Injury Definition and Data Collection Procedures Injury Surveillance in Multi-Sport Events

8 8 10 12

2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5

Injuries during the Football Season Injuries of Male Players of Different Age and Skill Level Severe Injuries of Male Players Injuries of Female Players of the German National League Injuries in the Tunisian Professional Leagues Injuries in the Congo National Football League

14 14 16 18 20 22

2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7

Injuries during Football Competitions Injuries during FIFA Competitions 1998 - 2001 Injuries during the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan™ Injuries during the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany™ Injuries of Female Players in Top-Level International Competitions Injuries during the FIFA Futsal World Cups 2004 and 2008 Injuries and Illnesses at the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™ Injury Surveillance in World Football Tournaments 1998-2012

24 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9

Risk Factors and Injury Causation Risk Factors of Injuries in Different Ages and Skill Level Risk Factors for Injuries in Elite Female Football Players Tackling Situations of Male Players during FIFA Competitions Video Analysis of Ankle Injuries Causation of Injuries in Elite Female Players Tackling Situations of Female Players in Top-Level Competitions Refereeing in Injury Situations Risk of Injury on Artificial Turf Influence of Match Events on Injury Incidence during FIFA World Cups™

38 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54

2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5

Head Injuries Head and Neck Injuries during FIFA Competitions Biomechanical Aspects of Head Injuries Biomechanical Analysis of Head Impacts Biomechanical Analysis of Ball Properties Biomechanical Analysis of Headgear

56 56 58 60 62 64

FOOTBALL MEDICINE PROJECTS | TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.6.6 S-100 Beta Serum Levels after Controlled Heading 2.6.7 Serum Levels of S-100 Beta after Minor Head Trauma 2.6.8 The Value of Neuropsychological Testing after Head Injuries 2.6.9 Effects of Heading Exposure and Previous Concussions 2.6.10 Do Minor Head Impacts in Football Cause Concussive Injury?

66 68 70 72 74

2.7 Injuries of Referees and Assistant Referees 2.7.1 Injuries in FIFA Competitions 2.7.2 Injuries of Referees at All Levels of Play in Switzerland

76 76 78

2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8 2.8.9

Injuries in Other Sports Comparison of Injuries in Football and in Rugby Injuries during the Olympic Games in Athens 2004 Handball Injuries during Major International Competitions Sports Injury during the 11th IAAF World Championships Injuries during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing Sports Injuries and Illnesses during the 2009 FINA World Championships Sports Injuries and Illnesses during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games Sports Injuries and Illnesses during the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London Injuries in 13 International Athletics Championships

80 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96

3

Prevention of Football Injury

98

3.1

Review of Literature

98

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5