Fishes of Toronto - City of Toronto

the land that eventually became Toronto while on a mission to build alliances with native peoples. 1656 Jesuits capture Atlantic Salmon, catfish, and eels on the ...
20MB Sizes 2 Downloads 405 Views
FISHES OF TORONTO A GUIDE TO THEIR REMARKABLE WORLD • City of Toronto Biodiversity Series •

Imagine a Toronto with flourishing natural habitats and an urban environment made safe for a great diversity of wildlife species. Envision a city whose residents treasure their daily encounters with the remarkable and inspiring world of nature, and the variety of plants and animals who share this world. Take pride in a Toronto that aspires to be a world leader in the development of urban initiatives that  will be critical to the preservation of our flora and fauna.

Cover photo: Jon Clayton Trout in the Humber River – A migrating Brown Trout attempts to jump a weir near the Old Mill Bridge, just north of Bloor Street. Between late September and early November migrating trouts and salmons can be seen at any of the weirs in the Humber River upstream of Bloor Street. These weirs are barriers to fish migration and were modified (notched) to enable at least the larger jumping fishes to migrate upstream to their spawning grounds. The removal of these migration barriers is a significant component of efforts associated with the restoration of the previously extirpated (locally extinct) native Atlantic Salmon. City of Toronto © 2012 ISBN 978-1-895739-63-3

Northern Pike

illustration: Charles Weiss

“Indeed, in its need for variety and acceptance of randomness, a flourishing natural ecosystem is more like a city than like a plantation. Perhaps it will be the city that reawakens our understanding and appreciation of nature, in all its teeming, unpredictable complexity.” – Jane Jacobs

Atlantic Salmon

illustration: Charles Weiss

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS Welcome from Margaret Atwood and Graeme Gibson . . Need for Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yesterday’s Habitats of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brief History of Lake Ontario Fishes and Fish Habitat . Today’s Habitats of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aquatic Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fish Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fishes of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toronto’s (un)Official Fish: Atlantic Salmon . . . . Coldwater Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coolwater Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warmwater Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Endangered Species: American Eel . . . . . . . . . . Intentionally Introduced Species . . . . . . . . . . . Checklist of Coldwater Fishes of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . Checklist of Coolwater Fishes of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . Checklist of Warmwater Fishes of Toronto . . . . . . . . . Spawning Calendar – Toronto and Southern Ontario . . . Exceptional Sport Fishing Locations in Toronto . . . . . Threats to Fishes of Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Invasive Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urbanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fish-Friendly Policies in Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan . . . . . The Wet Weather Flow Master Plan . . . . . . . . . . Stream Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fish Migration Barrier Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waterfront and Wetlands Restoration . . . . . . . . . How You Can Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fishing Regulations in the Toronto Area . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Fishes and Fishing Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .