Forests

levels of the Cantabrian chain and its satellite ranges, west to the Sierra de Picos de Ancares in Galicia ...... caerulea, Hieracium trifidum, Aster bellidiastrum.
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Forests

CORINE BIOTOPES MANUAL

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4 FORESTS 41 Broad-leaved deciduous forests

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41 Broad-leaved deciduous forests

Forests and woodland of native deciduous trees, other than floodplain or mire woods; forests dominated by broad-leaved deciduous trees, but comprising broad-leaved evergreen trees, are included. BEECH FORESTS Forests dominated by Fagus sylvatica or, in Greece, F. orientalis or F. moesiaca. Many montane formations are beech-fir or beech-fir-spruce forests, to be noted as 43 (mixed forests), but with the suffixes below; they are discussed with the corresponding deciduous forest. CENTRAL EUROPEAN ACIDOPHILOUS BEECH FORESTS WITH WOODRUSH L UZULO-FA GENION Medio-European beech and, in higher mountains, beech-fir or beech-fir-spruce forests on acid soils, with Luzula luzuloides, Polytrichumjormosum, and often Deschampsiajlexuosa, Vaccinium myrtillus, Pteridium aquilinum. (Noirfalise, 1956, 1984, 1986, 1987; Vanden Berghen and Mullenders, 1957; Roisin, 1962; Ellenberg, 1963, 1988; Oberdorfer, 1967, 1990; Noirfalise and Vanesse, 1977; Renault, 1978; Ozenda, 1979, 1985; Ozenda et al., 1979; Petermann and Seibert, 1979; Timbal, 1981; Thill et al., 1988) Collinar woodrush beech forests Beech forests of the lesser Hercynian ranges and Lorraine, never accompanied by spontaneous conifers. Montane woodrush beech forests Beech, beech-fir or beech-fir-spruce (43.112) of the greater Hercynian ranges, the Jura, the Alps and the Bavarian Plateau. Bayerischer Wald woodrush beech forests Near-natural forests of the Bayerischer Wald. Semi-natural montane woodrush beech forests Other formations. ATLANTIC ACIDOPHILOUS BEECH FORESTS Ilici-Fagenion Atlantic forests on acid soils, differing from 41.'11 by the absence of Luzula luzuloides and a greater abundance of flex aquijolium. (Tiixen and Oberdorfer, 1958; Roisin, 1961; Hofmann, 1966; Braun-Blanquet, 1967a; Durin et al., 1967; BaudH:re, 1974a; Bugnon and Rameau, 1974; Clement et al., 1974; Frileux, 1974; Gehu, 1974; Ozenda, 1979, 1985; Ozenda et al., 1979; Aaby, 1983; Noirfalise, 1984, 1986, 1987; Coquillard et al., 1985; Loidi Arregui, 1987; Diaz Gonzalez and Fernandez Prieto, 1987; Navarro Andres and Valle Gutierrez, 1987; Vigo and Ninot, 1987; Izco Sevillano, 1987; Peinado Lorca and Martinez Parras, 1987; Rivas-Martinez et at., 1987; Oberdorfer, 1990; Rodwell, 1991) North Sea acidophilous beech forests Periclymeno-Fagetum, Ilici-Fagetum, Milio-Fagetum, Fago-Quercetum p. Fragmented and insularized forests of the western seaboard of Europe, in Denmark, northern Germany, The Netherlands, middle Belgium, Picardy, Normandy and southern England. Sub-Atlantic acidophilous beech forests Deschampsio-Fagetum i.a. Transition forests of the Paris basin, the Morvan, the periphery of the Central Massif, the eastern and central Pyrenees.

146 1

CORINE BIOTOPES MANUAL

4 FORESTS 41 Broad-leaved deciduous forests

Armorican acidophilous beech forests Rusco-Fagetum Hyper-Atlantic forests of Brittany with an abundance of epiphytes and an understorey of ferns and evergreen bushes. pyreneo-Cantabrian acidophilous beech forests S~ifrogoh~sum~F~emm

Humid forests with luxuriant epiphytism of the western Pyrenees and eastern Cantabrian mountains. Western Cantabrian acidophilous beech forests Luzulo henriquesii-Fagetum Humid acidophilous beech forests of western Cantabrian and Asturian mountains. Galician acidophilous beech forests Luzulo henriquesii-Fagetum mercurialetosum perennis Humid beech forests of high, snowy dolomitic and calcareous sierras of Galicia (Ancares, Cebreiro, Caurel), somewhat intermediate between unit 41.12 and unit 41.13. Humid Iberian acidophilous beech forests Galio rotundifolii-Fagetum p. Humid acidophilous beech forests of the northern Iberian Range. Hyper-humid Iberian acidophilous beech forests !lid-Fagetum Hyper-humid acidophilous beech forests of the northern Iberian Range. Ayllon acidophilous beech forests Galio rotundifolii-Fagetum