Grade 6 SAMPLE MATERIAL INSIDE - Nelson

conflicts are minor, such as disagreements ... Selected Armed Conflicts, 2016. 7. NEL. Lesson 1: ..... Israel and Palestine: Palestine is primarily a Muslim country.
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Grade 6 SAMPLE MATERIAL INSIDE

About Nelson Socials Grades K–7 Nelson Socials is a new, comprehensive series that helps students become active, engaged citizens with the ability to think and communicate critically, historically, and geographically. To gain a deeper understanding of their world, students are encouraged to ask questions to discover content through Curricular and Core Competencies. Authentic First Peoples voices are also infused through a variety of sources and perspectives to build ways of knowing and learning from the past and present. Key Features

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Customized, engaging content provides complete curriculum coverage of all Learning Standards

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Active learning is encouraged through the use of a variety of sources and inquiry-based activities

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Embedded Curricular and Core Competencies support Social Studies skills and processes

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Authentic First Peoples voices focuses on learning through the First Peoples and Principles of Learning

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Comprehensive teaching support has been developed for easy implementation

Resource Component Overview This sampler provides a preview of Nelson Socials Grade 6. You will find a sample of each of the following components:

Student Resource A 96-page Student Resource is divided into four Themes with four to five lessons in each theme. The Themes are: 1. Equality and Urbanization 2. Decision Making and Representation 3. Global Economics 4. Conflict and Cooperation Each theme in the student module works together with the Activity Cards to develop Core and Curricular competencies through an Inquiry based approach.

Activity Cards The Activity Cards are integral to learning and provide students with the opportunity to work with the content and competencies through an inquiry-based approach.

Teacher Cards Embedded teaching support is provided on all Activity Cards to support teachers during lessons. They include prompts to help guide discussions and provide background information.

Teacher’s Resource The Teacher’s Resource is a robust planning tool that supports the entire lesson and includes how to facilitate learning through First People’s perspectives. This sampler provides: ■■

One Lesson Plan

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One accompanying Blackline Master

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Student Resource

H O W D O D IF FE R EN T C A U S ES UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT Conflict happens when people or groups have opposing ideas or interests and they struggle for power or control. Some conflicts are minor, such as disagreements with a friend. Armed conflicts are major because they are violent and involve many people in large geographic areas. These conflicts often last a long time and have negative consequences for many people. Look at pages 8 and 9 to learn about different causes of conflict. Use the map in this infographic to locate the two examples of conflict on those pages. Q:  What differences and similarities do you notice between the two examples?

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T F Colombia

This infographic shows the duration of some armed conflicts and the number of people displaced (or forced to move permanently) by these conflicts. Q: What causes some conflicts to last longer than others? Why do some conflicts displace more people than other conflicts?

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IN FL U EN C E C O N FL IC T ? Selected Armed Conflicts, 2016 Duration of Selected Conflicts 0–9 years 10–24 years 25–39 years 40+ years

Ukraine

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Libya

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Israel and Palestine

Thailand

Eastern India

Yemen

Somalia

Thailand

500 000 Eastern India

500 000 Ukraine

1.4 million Somalia

2 million Yemen

2.8 million Libya Number of People Displaced by Conflicts = 500 000 people

4.3 million Israel and Palestine

5 million Colombia

5.7 million Syria

13 million

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Lesson 1: Causes of Conflict

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Student Resource CAUSES OF CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES: Droughts, floods, and other natural disasters destroy resources and force people to move. Conflict can happen when people compete for basic necessities such as food, water, living spaces, and jobs in the places affected by these environmental changes. Some scientists predict that continued climate change will increase the number of armed conflicts.

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Somalia, 2016: Displaced Somalians receive food and water from international aid workers. Q: Identify potential causes that could create conflict in this situation and then explain what steps are being taken to prevent conflict.

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CULTURAL CAUSES: Culture describes people’s beliefs, values, customs, and knowledge. Conflict can happen when people are intolerant of other cultures or when groups force their culture on other groups. Tensions can also arise when people of the same religion have different viewpoints on religious teachings. For example, the two main groups in the Islamic religion are Sunni and Shia. These groups have some different religious practices and they select religious leaders differently. This can cause disagreements.

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THEME 4: Conflict and Cooperation

TERRITORIAL CAUSES: Competition between different groups for land and resources can cause conflict. Territorial causes include border disputes, spying, armed invasions, and actions that ignore a group’s land and borders. In response, people may take up arms to defend their territory.

Colombia, 2012: A group of Nasa people protests the actions of the Colombian government and a rebel group. The Nasa are an indigenous people in Colombia. Q: What inferences can you make from this photo about the causes of this conflict?

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ECONOMIC CAUSES: Conflict can happen when a small group of people has great wealth while most people have little wealth. In some countries, most people have low-paying jobs or are unemployed. They cannot afford basic necessities such as food, water, and shelter. Economic inequalities like these can cause those with little wealth to use violence to bring about change. Sometimes, conflict happens when a wealthy group takes action to control the resources of a less wealthy group.

POLITICAL CAUSES: Conflict can occur between political groups competing for power. Groups may have opposing policies or ideas about how to govern and the values people should live by. A government that provides poor services, is dishonest, or runs unfair elections can cause people to take violent action to create change. NEL

Lesson 1: Causes of Conflict

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Activity Card

Theme 4: Conflict and Cooperation, Lesson 1

HOW DO DIFFERENT CAUSES INFLUENCE CONFLICT? Analyze Causes of Conflict

WHAT CAUSED THE SYRIAN CONFLICT?

1) Connect: Which causes of conflict presented in the Student Module can you identify in this case study? 2) Categorize: Sort the causes you have identified into long-term or underlying causes versus short-term or immediate causes.

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3) Represent: Create a visual to show how these causes are connected to each other. 4) Determine Influence: Identify the cause of this conflict that you think is most influential. Share your answer with supporting evidence.

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Syria and Neighbouring Countries TURKEY

AR-RAQQAH PROVINCE

SYRIA LEBANON

Mediterranean Sea

ISRAEL

IRAQ

Deraa

PALESTINE

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JORDAN EGYPT

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SAUDI ARABIA

The region where Syria lies has been conquered and divided by many different powers. It was once part of the Ottoman Empire, but was taken over by France in 1920. Syrians objected to French rule and fought for independence. In 1946, the French left Syria, but struggle for control of the country continued.

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The Assad family has governed Syria since 1970. The family established a dictatorship under a one-party political system. No other political groups were allowed in this system. The Assad family are Alawites, a small group of Shia Muslims in Syria. The majority of Syrians are Sunnis, a different group of Muslims. In the early 2000s, President Bashar al-Assad began making economic changes. These changes benefitted those closely connected to the government, but did not improve quality of life for other Syrians. In December 2010, protests against governments began in countries in Africa and the Middle East. These protests were called the Arab Spring. They inspired Syrians to take action, starting in the city of Deraa. The government sent troops to stop them. Violence soon broke out across the country. As of 2016, fighting continues between several different groups.

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Reuters Top News, March 17, 2013

CITY PROTESTS ARREST OF TEENAGERS alidi Dominic Evans and Suleiman Al-Kh 16-year-old Mohammad On the night of February 22, 2011, l graffiti demanding the and five friends gathered to scraw ad, whose family had overthrow of President Bashar al-Ass rs. 40 yea for ry count the ruled l wall: “No teaching, One student scribbled on the schoo Rule.” No School, Till the end of Bashar’s to see us,” said the youth. “We did not expect the school guard ht long-buried anger Their detention and abuse broug erupted in protest on in Deraa boiling to the surface. It March 18, 2011.

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azine, August 11, 2016

ASSAD WARNS PROT Scott Anderson

On March 30, 2011, Assa d delivered a speech to the Syrian Parliament, carried live by state television and radio. Whi le protests had spread to a number of Syrian cities, they were still largely peaceful, with dissenters calling for changes in the regi me rather than for its overthrow. Syria’s secret police were still everywhere, and the country’s permane nt ruling class remaine d firmly in the hands of the Alawite minority. Nelson Socials 6

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Ar-Raqqah Province, Syria, 2010: A man touches dry soil. Mismanagement of land and resources and lack of rain since 2006 have made it difficult for farmers to grow crops. Many farming families have been forced to move to cities to find work.

ESTERS

The Alawites, along with many in Syria’s Christian minority, fear ed that any compromise with the pro testers was to invite a Sunni revolution and , with it, their demise [end]. Assad used his parliam entary speech to issue a stern warning. “Buryin g sedition [rebellion] is a national, moral and religious duty, and all those who can contrib ute to burying it and do not are part of it,” he declared. “There is no compromise or mid dle way in this.” Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd.

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Activity Card

Theme 4: Conflict and Cooperation, Lesson 1

HOW DO DIFFERENT CAUSES INFLUENCE CONFLICT? Prompts to Guide Student Discussion and Analysis of Causes •

Teachers: The information on this card can be used to guide students in their analysis of the causes of the Syrian conflict. Complete support for these activities is in the lesson in the Teacher’s Resource.

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Underlying cause: territorial/political Foreign involvement in Syria established borders and governing systems that did not always respect the traditions or interests of the groups within Syria.

Underlying cause: political There were no formal opposition parties to express criticism of the policies or ideas of the Assad government.

Underlying cause: economic These changes created economic inequality.

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Tips for Analyzing Sources •

Immediate cause: political These teenagers were punished for expressing anti-government sentiments that a large part of the population agreed with. As a result, the community rallied around this event.

D Immediate cause: cultural The Alawites are a small group of Shia Muslims in Syria. The majority of Syrians are Sunnis, a different group of Muslims.

Nelson Socials 6 Teacher Card

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Underlying cause: environmental (with connections to economic and political) In the 1980s, the government started economically supporting crops (wheat and cotton) that require a lot of water to grow, without consideration for how limited water was in this region. From 2006 to 2010, about 60% of Syria experienced a drought. This drought displaced over 1.5 million people.

Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd.

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Lesson Plan Theme 4, Lesson 1: How do different causes influence conflict? Program Resources Student Card 2: How do different causes influence conflict? Teacher Card 2: How do different causes influence conflict? BLM 1: Analyzing Images Online Teaching Centre Big Idea: Economic self-interest is one of several significant causes of conflict among peoples and governments.

Core Competencies: As they complete Student Card 2, students will communicate with others to achieve a common goal and do their share. They will also employ creative thinking skills as they build on the ideas of others to create new ways to express their understanding. Curricular Competency and Content: As students complete Student Card 2, they will interpret and analyze ideas to help them explain the causes of regional and international conflict. First Peoples Principles of Learning: Learning is holistic, reflexive, relational, and experiential. In Acquire and Apply and Respond and Reflect, students will explore the interconnections of causes of conflict. Background As students examine the map on Student Module pages 6-7, the following background information may be useful: Thailand: Much of southern Thailand was once part of the Kingdom of Patani, a mainly Muslim region. Patani was taken over by Thailand in 1902. People in this region claim persecution by Buddhist Thais. Since 2004, the struggle between Muslims and Buddhists has intensified as militant groups increase their efforts to create an autonomous Muslim state. Eastern India: Rebel groups in various eastern states of India have been in conflict with the government since 2004. The rebels claim to be fighting on behalf of the Adivasis, indigenous groups of India. Many Adivasis are impoverished, their condition worsened by the loss of traditional lands and livelihoods to mining development. Ukraine: About 60 percent of people in southeastern Ukraine (an area called Crimea) consider themselves Russian. In 2014, marchers in Kiev, the capital city of Ukraine, forced the pro-Russian president from office. In response, pro-Russian separatist rebels took control of parts of Crimea and other parts of eastern Ukraine. Within a month, Russia occupied Crimea. Yemen: In 2011, two Muslim groups, the Zaidi Shia and Sunni Muslims, came into conflict. Zaidi Shia rebels, forced the Yemeni president Abdrabbuh Mansiyr Hadi, a Sunni Muslim, to flee to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia responded by bombing rebel positions. Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State are also pursuing power in the country, and the Yemeni security forces are split in their allegiances. All groups want control of the nearby waterways though which much of the world’s oil travels. Somalia: In 1991, Mohamed Siad Barre’s socialist government was ousted by several armed clans, resulting in a power vacuum and a decades-long civil war. In 2006, an Islamic group, called Al-Shabaab, took control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. The group was driven out by Ethiopian forces and an African Union peacekeeping force took over in

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The above page spreads are for content purposes only. Final design has not been applied.

2009. Al-Shabaab continues to fight the government that formed in 2012. Recurring drought has contributed to the conflict. Libya: The crisis in Libya began in 2011 with an uprising to oust dictator Muammar Gaddafi, who had been in power since 1969. Following his overthrow, the General National Congress (GNC) was elected in 2012, but defeated in the 2014 elections. A small group of GNC politicians refused to disband after their defeat and formed a rival government. In 2016, the two governments agreed to a new unity government, backed by the United Nations. Many Libyans oppose the new government. Israel and Palestine: Palestine is primarily a Muslim country. In the late 1800s, the Jewish population grew in the region. After the Second World War, the Allies split Palestine approximately in half to create a homeland, Israel, for displaced Jews. Israel conquered more of Palestine during military conflicts in the 1940s and 1960s. Two particularly disputed territories are Gaza and the West Bank. Colombia: The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) formed in 1964. Original members held Marxist-Leninist ideology. These members included farmers whose goals were to bring economic equality and overthrow the government. The FARC established strategic posts in the territories of indigenous peoples, including in those of the Nasa. Meanwhile, the government sought control of resources in these territories because of potential trade agreements. The Nasa were often caught in the crossfire between government troops and the rebels. In August 2016, the government and FARC signed a peace agreement. Syria: The causes of the Syrian conflict (which began with the Arab Spring in 2011) are very complicated. The conflict is a result of many underlying factors. Some of these causes are presented in the texts on Student Card 2. As students read the Student Card, the following background information may be useful: The Ottoman Empire: The empire began in 1299. Its goal was to spread Islamic rule. By the mid-1500s the empire encompassed Anatolia (Asia Minor), much of the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and a large part of southeastern Europe. European powers pushed back and gained ground. In the First World War, Ottoman leaders joined the Central Powers against the Allies in hopes of regaining territory. The loss of the war brought about the empire’s collapse in 1922.

For more on Cause and Consequence see page XX.

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Activate and Question • In small groups, have students reflect on the word conflict. As a class, develop a definition for conflict. • Discuss: Why can’t we all get along with one another? What can we do to prevent conflict? Allow volunteers to share personal stories of conflict as they reflect on these questions. • Project one of the images of conflict provided in the Online Teaching Centre. In their same small groups, students can speculate about the causes or reasons for this conflict. They can use BLM 1: Analyzing

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Lesson Plan Images to guide their observations and inferences. Groups can share one possible cause with the class. Acquire and Apply • Compare the definition of conflict provided on Student Module page 6 to the class definition. Discuss: What would you add to the class definition? Would you change the definition in the Student Module in any way? • Discuss the rest of the text in the first paragraph as well as the second paragraph on Student Module page 6. Ask students to suggest some possible consequences of long-lasting armed conflicts. • For the caption and infographic on Student Module pages 6-7, discuss: How serious were the conflicts? How do you know? Students should point to the duration and displacement figures as evidence of the seriousness of the conflicts. • Discuss the caption questions. SAMPLE RESPONSES

Q: What causes some conflicts to last longer than others? R: Conflicts related to people’s cultural identity and religious beliefs can

last a long time because identity and beliefs do not usually change, but providing food and water can address environmental causes relatively quickly; conflict related to territory can last a long time because land is often connected to people’s history, identity, and sense of place. Q: Why do some conflicts displace more people than other conflicts? R: Conflicts occur in densely populated areas; conflicts are particularly violent; violence is targeted at large cultural or ethnic groups. •

Discuss the last paragraph on Student Module page 6, as students locate on the map the two examples of conflict on pages 8 and 9 (Somalia and Colombia). Discuss the question on page 6 based on students’ initial look at the photos and captions

SAMPLE RESPONSES

Q: What differences and similarities do you notice between the two examples?

R: Differences: duration, number of people displaced, Somalia example is

related to food and water, Colombia example is related to different groups of people; similarities: both are armed conflicts, have lasted many years, displaced millions of people. •



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To help students understand the complex nature of conflicts (multiple causes, interconnections of causes), return to the earlier discussion of personal conflict in Activate and Question. Can students pinpoint only one cause of a conflict they were involved with or were there sometimes multiple causes? Discuss the concept of underlying (long-term) causes and immediate (short-term) causes, using an example to model the concepts. If further support for understanding underlying and immediate causes is needed,

BC Social Studies 6 Draft Teacher’s Resource Lesson

The above page spreads are for content purposes only. Final design has not been applied.

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return to the discussion of personal conflict. Students can identify underlying and immediate causes for those conflicts. For Student Module pages 8-9, discuss the different causes of conflict, making sure students understand the difference among causes as well as how those causes can connect to one another. In small groups, students can look for evidence in the photos to help them answer the caption questions and determine the possible causes of conflicts. They can use BLM 1: Analyzing Images. Background information on the two conflicts may be provided to support students’ analysis. Invite groups to share their conclusions to the caption questions on Student Module pages 8-9.

SAMPLE RESPONSES

Q: What steps are being taken to prevent conflict? R: Insufficient food and water and competition for these resources are

Assessment Tool

related to environmental, territorial, and/or economic causes and it looks like there is some orderly arrangement for people to receive aid, equal distribution of food and water. Q: What inferences can you make from this photo about the causes of this conflict? R: Seems to be a territorial cause since the Nasa appear to have set up a blockade across a road and may be trying to prevent government representatives and/or rebels from entering an area, the blockade may be a symbolic act to indicate the Nasa’s right to the land; could also be cultural cause of conflict since it involves indigenous people; the cause might also be political as the involvement of rebels suggests dissatisfaction with the government. • •



Consider using Documenting Learning: Causes of Conflict to document student learning in the curricular competencies as you observe students working. Use one of the examples to model a think-aloud as you identify potential causes. Explain that you are drawing from the words to help you make inferences about the causes of this conflict. Use language such as “I think…” and “This word tells me that…so I think that…” Then assign groups to a conflict to identify and explain the causes. Invite groups to share their understanding. Tell students that they will now look for evidence about the causes of a specific conflict as they read Student Card 2. Lead the discussion using the questions and information on Teacher Card 2 . Note that the Student Card includes five pieces provided for analysis. Give students time to read each item/source. Students could use BLM 1: Analyzing Images to help them analyze the texts. As students identify causes on the Student Card, they will come to understand the complexity and interrelated nature of causes of conflict.

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Lesson Plan Student Card 2: How do different causes influence conflict? • For #1 Connect on Student Card 2, groups can use the information in the Student Module pages 6-7 to help them. Note that the Teacher Card identifies the causes of conflict and the supporting evidence. • Before students begin #2 Categorize, model how to identify an example of an underlying and an immediate cause. • For #3 Represent, guide students to see interrelationships between causes by providing an example: In Ukraine, people have been dissatisfied with their government for a long time (political cause). Protests broke out when their government rejected a trade deal with other European countries. Ukrainians believe the deal would have benefitted their economy (economic cause). To support students struggling with representing interrelationships, work with them to develop a visual, such as a web diagram, to show the interrelationships in the above example. • For #4 Determine Influence, tell students that there is no right or wrong answer, but they must be able to support their position with evidence. To support students, work together to develop criteria for determining influence. • As students share their ideas, other students can offer feedback and ask questions using sentence starters such as the following: “What makes you say that ____ is caused by _____?” “Can you tell me why you thought that…?” “What about the evidence in the caption that suggests that ______ is the cause?” Formative Assessment Collecting Information

Assessment Tool



• Assessment Tool



Using Information

Invite groups to discuss: How do different causes influence conflict? They can use a conflict they have explored during this lesson to help them answer this question. (e.g., In Syria, long-term political and cultural causes, along with short-term environmental and economic causes, led to conflict.) Consider using Documenting Critical Thinking/Communication: Profiles >to come> as you observe students responding to the above question. If you see examples of students demonstrating growth in this core competency, ask them if they would like to document this activity as an example. Students can use a 3–2–1 strategy to reflect on their learning (e.g., 3 new ideas they have learned about the causes of conflict, 2 ideas that challenged their understanding, and 1 question they still have).

Secondary Lesson Have students rank the causes of the Syrian conflict according to their significance. Have them share their ranking using supporting evidence.

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BC Social Studies 6 Draft Teacher’s Resource Lesson

The above page spreads are for content purposes only. Final design has not been applied.

BLM Name: ________________________

Date: _________________________

BLM 1: Analyzing Images Use the following questions to help you analyze an image. Include evidence for questions 2 and 3. Image: _____________________________________________________________ 1. Who or what is in the image? (people, natural and/or human-made objects)

Observations (What I See):

2. Where does the image take place? (location)

Observations (What I See):

Evidence (How I Know):

3. What is happening in the image? (activity, event)

Observations (What I See):

Evidence (How I Know):

Based on what you have recorded, what can you infer about why the activity or event is taking place? Use evidence to support your thinking.

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Notes

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Notes

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Order Information Kindergarten

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