GREEK GRAMMAR HANDOUT 2012 Karl Maurer, (office) 215 Carpenter, (972) 252-5289, (email) [email protected]
I. Greek Accenting: Basic Rules
II. ALL NOUN DECLENSIONS. (How to form the Dual p. 12) B. (p. 13) 'X-Rays' of Odd Third-declension Nouns. C. (p. 15) Greek declensions compared with Archaic Latin declensions.
III. Commonest Pronouns declined (for Homeric pronouns see also p. 70).
IV. Commonest Adjectives declined.
V. VERB-CONJUGATIONS: A. (p. 22) λύω conjugated. B. (p. 23) How to Form the Dual. C. (p. 24) Homeric Verb Forms (for regular verbs). D. (p. 26) ἵστημι conjugated. (p. 29) τίθημι conjugated; (p. 29 ff.) δείκνυμι, δίδωμι, εἶμι, εἰμί, φημί, ἵημι. E. (p. 32) Mnemonics for Contract verbs.
VI.A. Participles, B. Infinitives, C. Imperatives. D (p. 33) Greek vs. Latin Imperatives
VII. PRINCIPAL PARTS of verbs, namely, 1. (p. 35) Vowel Stems. 2. (p. 36) Dentals. 3. (p. 36) Labials. 4. (p. 36) Palatals. 5. (p. 36) Liquids. 6. (p. 38) Hybrids. 7. (p. 37) -άνω, -ύνω, -σκω, -ίσκω. 8. (p. 39) 'Irregular' 9. (p. 40) Consonant changes in perfect passive. 10. (p. 40) "Infixes": what they are. 11. (p. 41) Irregular Reduplications and Augments. 12. (p. 42) Irregular (-μι-verb-like) 2nd Aorist Forms.
43 44 45 47 49 52 53 56 57
VII.A Perfect tense (meaning of), by D. B. Monro VIII. Conditions IX. Indirect Discourse: Moods in. (p. 43 the same restated) X. Interrogative Pronouns & Indirect Question XI. Relative Clauses. XII. Constructions with words meaning "BEFORE" and "UNTIL" XIII. Words Used 'Attributively' and 'Predicatively' XIV. Supplementary Participles XV. 'Internal Object' (Internal & External Accusatives)
2 58 59 65 69 70 71 72.
XVI. 'Active' & 'Passive' Verbal Nouns & Adjectives XVII. PREPOSITIONS: English to Greek. (p. 63 Time Expressions) XVIII. Prepositions: Greek to English. XIX. NUMERALS (& the four Greek letters used only as numerals) by Patrick Callahan XX. Table of ATTIC versus HOMERIC (etc.) forms for Nouns and Pronouns XXI. Greek Words for ‘Come’ and ‘Go’ XXI. Map of the Greek Dialects, by L. R. Palmer *
But WHY LEARN GREEK? An answer I think is implicit in this limpid little poem by Thomas Hardy: IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 'What do you see in that time-touched stone, When nothing is there But ashen blankness, although you give it A rigid stare? 'You look not quite as if you saw, But as if you heard, Parting your lips, and treading softly As mouse or bird. 'It is only the base of a pillar, they'll tell you, That came to us From a far old hill men used to name Areopagus.' — 'I know no art, and I only view A stone from a wall, But I am thinking that stone has echoed The voice of Paul, 'Paul as he stood and preached beside it Facing the crowd, A small gaunt figure with wasted features, Calling out loud 'Words that in all their intimate accents Pattered upon That marble front, and were far reflected, And then were gone. 'I'm a labouring man, and know but little, Or nothing at all; But I can't help thinking that stone once echoed The voice of Paul.'
(I) Basic Rules For Greek Accents Much of this is for beginners; but some particular rules are for advanced students too (especially in § IX). Here "ult" means a word's last syllable; "penult" the second-to-last, "antepenult" the third from last.
Mastery of accents comes only slowly, because their rules are complex; but you should not, in despair, just ignore them. If you ignore them, you can never pronounce Greek properly, or "hear" it in your inner ear. And then (a) memorizing inflections is far harder, and (b) again and again you miss vital information, given just by accents. E.g. μένω = "I stay", μενῶ = "I will stay"; or e.g. ἐν = "in", ἕν = "one thing"; or e.g. ἤν