Hybrid Human-Machine Computing Systems - Distributed Systems ...

Apr 28, 2016 - provisioning of compute units, the monitoring of the running system, and the ... 4 Runtime and Analytics Platform for Hybrid Computing Systems.
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Hybrid Human-Machine Computing Systems Provisioning, Monitoring, and Reliability Analysis PhD THESIS submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Technical Sciences within the

Vienna PhD School of Informatics by

Muhammad Zuhri Catur Candra Registration Number 1028649 to the Faculty of Informatics at the Vienna University of Technology Advisor: Univ.Prof. Dr. Schahram Dustdar Second advisor: Priv.Doz. Dr. Hong-Linh Truong External reviewers: Prof. Dr. Fabio Casati. University of Trento, Italy. Prof. Dr. Harald Gall. University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Vienna, 28th April, 2016

Muhammad Zuhri Catur Candra

Schahram Dustdar

Technische Universität Wien A-1040 Wien Karlsplatz 13 Tel. +43-1-58801-0 www.tuwien.ac.at

Declaration of Authorship Muhammad Zuhri Catur Candra Vienna, Austria

I hereby declare that I have written this Doctoral Thesis independently, that I have completely specified the utilized sources and resources and that I have definitely marked all parts of the work - including tables, maps and figures - which belong to other works or to the internet, literally or extracted, by referencing the source as borrowed.

Vienna, 28th April, 2016

Muhammad Zuhri Catur Candra

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Acknowledgements All praise be to The Lord of the worlds, who has given us life, knowledge, and wisdom. My first and foremost gratitude goes to my parents, for always giving me sincere and unconditional supports, and to my family — my wife and my boys — who have made my journey cheerful and lively. I would like to express my gratitude to my advisors, Univ.Prof. Dr. Schahram Dustdar and Priv.Doz. Dr. Hong-Linh Truong, for their guidance and supports to achieve this work. Also, I would like to thank all my colleagues at the Distributed System Group (DSG) for the fruitful discussions and collaboration, and especially to the DSG’s secretaries, who always provide excellent supports. Likewise, I am very thankful to the member of the Vienna PhD School of Informatics, especially Prof. Hannes Werthner, Prof. Hans Tompits, and Ms. Clarissa Schmid, who always assist me with any study-related issues and even many more, and to the students of the PhD School, for their sharing and caring. My special thanks are devoted to my colleagues at the Knowledge and Software Engineering (KSE) Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia, who have given me supports and sincerely let me off for my duty to embark on this long journey; and to my friends from Indonesia, especially at the Wapena club, who have made our life joyful and meaningful in this wonderful city of Vienna. Last but not least, I am grateful to have financial supports from the Vienna PhD School of Informatics and the EU FP7 SmartSociety project.

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Abstract Modern advances of computing systems allow humans to participate not only as service consumers but also as service providers, yielding the so-called human-based computation. In this paradigm, some computational steps to solve a problem can be outsourced to humans. Such an interweaving of humans and machines as compute units can be observed in various computing systems, such as collective intelligence systems, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAISs) with human tasks, and Cyber-Physical-Social Systems (CPSSs). Even with the multitude realizations of such systems — herein we refer to as Hybrid Human-Machine Computing System (HCS) — yet we still lack important building blocks to develop an HCS, where humans and machines are both considered as first class problem solvers from the ground up. These building blocks should tackle issues arise from different phases of an HCS’ lifecycle, i.e., pre-runtime, runtime, and post-runtime. Each phase introduces unique challenges, mainly due to the diversity of the involved compute units, which bring in different characteristics and behaviors that need to be taken into consideration. This thesis c