HARVARD LAW REVIEW
TRIAL BY MATHEMATICS: PRECISION AND RITUAL IN THE LEGAL PROCESS Laurence H. Tribe * Professor Tribe considers the accuracy, appropriateness,and possible dangers of utilizing mathematical methods in the legal process, first in the actual conduct of civil and criminal trials, and then in designing procedures for the trial system as a whole. He concludes that the utility of mathematical methods for these purposes has been greatly exaggerated. Even if mathematical techniques could significantly enhance the accuracy of the trial process, Professor Tribe also shows that their inherent conflict with other important values would be too great to allow their general use.
system of legal proof that replaced trial by battle in Europe during the Middle Ages reflected a starkly numerical jurisprudence. The law typically specified how many uncontradicted witnesses were required to establish various categories of propositions, and defined precisely how many witnesses of a particular class or gender were needed to cancel the testimony of a single witness of a more elevated order.' So it was that medieval law, nurtured by the abstractions of scholasticism, sought in mathematical precision an escape from the perils of irrational and subjective judgment. In a more pragmatic era, it should come as no surprise that the search for objectivity in adjudication has taken another tack. Yesterday's practice of numerology has given way to today's theory of probability, currently the sine qua non of rational analysis. Without indulging in the dubious speculation that con* Assistant Professor of Law, Harvard University. A.B. Harvard, 1962; J.D. Harvard, 1966. 1 See M. CAPPELLETTI & J. PaRiLLo, CIVIL
PROCEDURE IN ITALY
R. & n471 (1965); J. Kunert, Some Observations on the Origin and Structure of Evidence Rules Under the Common Law System and the Civil Law System of "Free Proof" in the German ENGELMANN,
HISTORY OF CONTINENTAL CIVIL PROCEDURE 41-47 (1927);
BRuZELIuS, CIVIL PROCEDURE IN SWEDEN 33 & 11.131, 295 GLASER, LEHRE VOm BEwEIS IM STRAPPROZESS 132-35 (1883);
Code of Criminal Procedure, I6 BUrr. L. REV.
& nn.99-ioo, x44-
45 (1966). See also A. EsEmN, A HISTORY OF CONTINENTAL CRIMNAL PROCEDURE 264-7, (J. Simpson, transl. 1913); I F. HizaE, TRAIT DE L'INSTRUCTION CRIMINELLE 65G-53, 656-57 (1845); F. VOLTAIRE, A COMMENTARY ON BECCARIA'S ESSAY ON CRI11ES AND PUNISHIENTS 227-28 (1872). HeinOnline -- 84 Harv. L. Rev. 1329 1970-1971
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temporary probabilistic methods will one day seem as quaint as their more mystical predecessors, one can at least observe that the resort to mathematical techniques as alternatives to more intuitive tools in the trial process has ancient roots. Nor is it entirely accidental that those roots seem oddly twisted when examined outside their native soil. For, although the mathematical or pseudo-mathematical devices which a society embraces to rationalize its systems for adjudication may be quite comprehensible to a student of that society's customs and culture, those devices may nonetheless operate to distort-and, in some instances, to destroy -important values which that society means to express or to pursue through the conduct of legal trials. This article discusses the respects in which this is the case - and, in so doing, suggests a framework of analysis for the assessment of the potentialities and dangers of current and proposed uses of mathematical methods in th