Introduction to Linguistics for Natural Language Processing

Oct 4, 2011 - Generative theory is thus good for capturing the productivity of ..... In (13) the verbs are the head (daughters) of the VPs and Ss and the phrases.
190KB Sizes 1 Downloads 179 Views
Introduction to Linguistics for Natural Language Processing Ted Briscoe Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge c

Ted Briscoe (6 sessions, Michaelmas Term 2011) October 4, 2011

Abstract This handout is a guide to the linguistic theory and techniques of analysis that will be useful for the ACS language and speech modules. If you have done some (computational) linguistics, then reading it and attempting the questions interspersed in the text as well as the exercises will help you decide if you need to do any supplementary reading. If not, you will need to do some additional reading and then check your understanding by attempting the exercises. See the end of the handout for suggested readings – this handout is not meant to replace them. I will give out additional (ticked) exercises during sessions which will be due in the following week. Ticks will contribute 20% of the final mark assigned for the module. Successful completion of the assessed practicals will require an understanding of much of the material presented, so you are advised to attend all the sessions and do the supplementary exercises and reading.

Contents 1 The Components of Natural Language(s)

3

1.1

Phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.2

Phonology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.3

Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.4

Lexicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.5

Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.6

Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.7

Pragmatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

2 (Unique) Properties of Natural Language(s)

6

2.1

Arbitrariness of the Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2

Productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.3

Discreteness / Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1

2.4

Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.5

Grammar and Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.6

Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.7

Cultural Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.8

Speak / Sign / Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.9

Variation and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.10 Exercises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Linguistic Methodology

9 10

3.1

Descriptive / Empirical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.2

Distributional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.3

Generative Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.4

Exercises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 Morphology (of English)

12

4.1

Parts-of-speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.2

Affixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4.3

Ir/Sub/Regularity . . . . . . .