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LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE

TRENDS IN POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUALISM IN EUROPE EDITORS: Guus Extra and Kutlay Yağmur

DET DANSKE KULTURINSTITUT INSTITUTE CULTUREL DANOIS DEENS CULTUREEL INSTITUUT

Guus Extra and Kutlay Yağmur

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© British Council 2012 Brand and Design / C001 The British Council creates international opportunities for the people of the UK and other countries and builds trust between them worldwide. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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With the support of: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Language rich europe TRENDS IN POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUALISM in europe

Editors: Guus Extra and Kutlay Yağmur

With the support of: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Published by Cambridge University Press, on behalf of the British Council. November 2012. © Language Rich Europe, British Council. You can copy, download (www.language-rich.eu) or print content of Language Rich Europe for your own use and you can include excerpts from Language Rich Europe in your own documents, presentation, blogs, website and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgements of the Langauge Rich Europe publication as source and copyright owner British Council are given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to [email protected] The responsibility for ideas or opinions expressed in this publication lies with the authors. The European Commission is not responsible for those ideas or opinions nor for any use that may be made of them. Printed and bound in Italy by Rotolito Lombarda SpA

LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE

conTenTS

ACKNoWLEdGEMENts........................................................................................................................... 2 iNtroduCtioN Martin Hope.................................................................................................................................................................... 6

PArt 3: NAtioNAL ANd rEGioNAL ProfiLEs Introduction Guus Extra, Martin Hope & Kutlay Yağmur ............................75 1.

Austria Tanja Nagel, Anke Schad, Barbara Semmler and Michael Wimmer ..................................................................................................................................... 83

KEy fiNdiNGs ANd disCussioN

2.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Jasmin Džindo and Selma Žeri´c.........91

Guus Extra and Kutlay Yağmur ............................................................................................................8

3.

Bulgaria Gueorgui Jetchev.......................................................................................................97

4.

Denmark Sabine Kirchmeier-Andersen............................................................. 104

5.

Estonia Kersti Sõstar ...................................................................................................................... 111

6.

France Louis-Jean Calvet ........................................................................................................119

7.

Germany Ingrid Gogolin, Joana Duarte, Pa