lgbt elder law: toward equity in aging - Harvard Law School

Feb 2, 2009 - Marriage Act (âDOMAâ) has established a federal definition of marriage. ...... riots began on June 27, 1969 when police raided a gay bar, the.
\\server05\productn\H\HLG\32-1\hlg103.txt

unknown

Seq: 1

2-FEB-09

12:48

LGBT ELDER LAW: TOWARD EQUITY IN AGING NANCY J. KNAUER*

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

I. LGBT Elders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. The Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. The Making of the Pre-Stonewall Generation . . . . . . . . . . 1. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Psychoanalytic Model of Homosexuality . . . . . . . II. Ageism and Homophobia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. The Invisibility of LGBT Elders: The De-Sexualized Senior and the Hypersexual Homosexual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Ageism within the LGBT Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Age Cohorts and Ageism within the LGBT Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Internalized Fear of the Predatory Homosexual . . . . C. Homophobia and Heteronormativity within the Senior Community and Aging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. LGBT Elderlaw Advocacy: Legal and Policy Issues . . . . . . . . A. Same-Sex Marriage, Chosen Families, and Heteronormative Federal Aging Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Same-Sex Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Chosen Families and Legal Strangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The Link Between Financial Insecurity and Heteronormative Federal Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Social Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Medicare and Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Non-Discrimination in Employment, Health Care, and Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. The Wages of Past Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Statutory Reform: ENDA, Fair Housing Act, and Older Americans Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Symbolic Messages, and Veterans’ Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. A Final Word about the Need for LGBT-Positive Housing and Eldercare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

* Professor of Law, Beasley School of Law, Temple University.

8 9 16 17 21 25

R R R R R R

26 29

R R

29 34

R R

36 40

R R

40 41 43

R R R

45 47 48

R R R

49 49

R R

50

R

52

R

54 57

R R

\\server05\productn\H\HLG\32-1\hlg103.txt

2

unknown

Seq: 2

Harvard Journal of Law & Gender

2-FEB-09

12:48

[Vol. 32

On June 16, 2008, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, longtime lesbian activists who were both well into their eighties, became the first same-sex couple to marry legally in California.1 Widely covered in the press, their wedding ceremony was presided over by San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom, as a jubilant crowd of supporters and a scattering of protestors waited outside City Hall.2 The elderly couple had been together for fifty-five years.3 They started the first lesbian organization in the 1950s and authored the groundbreaking book, Lesbian/Woman in 1972—when homosexuality was still classified as a mental illness by the American Psychiatric Association (“APA”).4 The couple’s long-standing commitment to the movement for LGBT equality, and to each other, made them the obvious choice for this historic first.5