making open science a reality - The Innovation Policy Platform

notebooks, open access to research materials, open source software, citizen science, .... bias (i.e. researchers tend to publish via open access their best-quality works, and ...... and also to help compile international rankings of scientific impact.
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MAKING OPEN SCIENCE A REALITY

MAKING OPEN SCIENCE A REALITY

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. This paper is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and the arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries. © OECD/OCDE 2015 Applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this material should be made to: OECD Publications, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris, Cedex 16, France; e-mail: [email protected] Photo credit: Cover © Getty Images International.

MAKING OPEN SCIENCE A REALITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD...................................................................................................................................................5  GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................................................7  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................9  Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................9  The rationale for open science ................................................................................................................... 10  Key actors in open science......................................................................................................................... 12  Policy trends in open science ..................................................................................................................... 13  Main findings and policy messages ........................................................................................................... 14  REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................. 17  CHAPTER ONE THE RATIONALES AND THE IMPACTS OF OPEN SCIENCE: AN OVERVIEW ... 18  Accessing scientific publications ............................................................................................................... 20  Accessing data ........................................................................................................................................... 26  “Altmetrics”, an alternative way to measure scientific impact .................................................................. 28  REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................. 31  CHAPTER TWO OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ..................................................... 36  Defining open access ................................................................................................................................. 36  Open access publishing and IP protection ................................................................................................. 41  Open access publishing and its legal implications ..................................................................................... 48  REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................. 51  CHAPTER THREE OPEN RESEARCH DATA .......................................................................................... 52  Data-driven scientific research .................................................................................................................. 52  Defining open data ..............................................................................