MILAN’S CONGESTION CHARGE ZONE DESCRIPTION In 2012, Milan introduced a conges on charge system, ‘Area C’. The conges on charge is a fee charged to vehicles entering Milan’s city centre and is applied to an 8.2 km² zone. ‘Area C’ operates on weekdays from 7:30 to 19:30 except on Thursdays, when it ends at 18:00. The zone is accessible through 43 entrance points which are constantly monitored by ANPR (automa c number plate recogni on) cameras. This smart system recognises the vehicle’s category matching the plate to the registered vehicle and charges the correct fee. The standard cket is €5. It includes two hours of free parking in designated spaces for registered commercial vehicles and a reduc on in parking fee at selected parking places for the rest of the vehicles. Diﬀerent fees apply to residents (the first 40 entries every year are free, the 41st access onward €2 ) and service vehicles. Scooters, electric cars, vehicles transpor ng disabled people and sustainable cars are exempt from the charge. High‐pollu ng vehicles up to category Euro 3 are prohibited. Drivers can buy entry passes through various means, including coupons from newsagents, pay and display machines, direct debit and online. ‘Telepass’ is also available, which allows drivers to enter the zone automa cally and the conges on charge is deducted directly from the user’s bank account. The objec ve of the measure is to decrease vehicle access to the area and thus decrease traﬃc conges on and pollu on. By exemp ng sustainable vehicles from the charge, the city also hopes to encourage more sustainable means of transport.
‘Area C’ is also a significant funding tool, which supports the city in moving towards a more sustainable urban mobility system. In 2012, over €20 million from ‘Area C’ were reinvested in sustainable mobility projects in the city: €10 million for improving the frequency of public transport €3 million for implemen ng the 2nd phase of city’s bike‐sharing system €3.7 million for the IT access‐control management system.
FINANCING The conges on charge system has an annual running cost of €7million which is oﬀset by the total annual revenues (€27million in 2012 & €29.4 million in 2013).
RESULTS The results of the first year of opera on of ‘Area C’ were already significant: Traﬃc has been reduced by 31,1% on average (41.000 less vehicles in the ‘Area C’) High pollutant vehicles have been reduced by 49% (2.400 less vehicles per day in ‘Area C’) Clean vehicles have increased by 4,5 % (from 7,3% to 11,8% of the total vehicles entering the ‘Area C’) Bus running speed has increased by 3,5% and tram speed by 4% Accidents have been reduced by 26% Daily average emissions of pollutants have been decreased: Total PM10: ‐18%; Exhaust PM10: ‐10%; Ammonia: ‐ 42%; Nitrogen Oxides: ‐18%; Carbon Dioxide: ‐35%.
LESSONS LEARNT A conges on charge scheme could help ci zens move towards more sustainable transport modes. A er one year of opera on, ci zens seemed to have understood the objec ves of ‘Area C’ and adopt more environmentally friendly travel behaviour. Poten al conflicts of interest with other ac vi es in the concerned area (e.g. private parking facili es) should be iden fied and resolved before applying the scheme.
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS Ci zens’ consensus. Ci zens were asked to vote in a public referendum on limi ng traﬃc and increasing the uptake of low‐emissions vehicles (e.g. electric, hybrid, LPG) in the city centre. 79% voted in favour of such a measure. Ci zens are kept up to date on the latest results of the Area C (traﬃc and pollu on sta s cs) via its oﬃcial website. The revenues coming from ‘Area C’ are reinvested in sustainable mobility projects.
THE CASCADE EXPERIENCE Milan presented its municipal conges on charge system ‘Area C’ to experts and oﬃcials from