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understand, and explain the breadth of the moral domain? We use the term monist to .... and Market. Pricing (see also Rai & Fiske, 2011). ...... lowest on the Care and Fairness foundations and very high on the other three. They were low on.
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Moral Foundations Theory

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Running head: MORAL FOUNDATIONS THEORY

Moral Foundations Theory: The Pragmatic Validity of Moral Pluralism

Jesse Grahama, Jonathan Haidtb, Sena Kolevaa, Matt Motylc, Ravi Iyera, Sean P. Wojcikd, & Peter H. Dittod

a

University of Southern California, bNew York University,

c

University of Virginia, dUniversity of California – Irvine

in press, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology

Abstract: Where does morality come from? Why are moral judgments often so similar across cultures, yet sometimes so variable? Is morality one thing, or many? Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) was created to answer these questions. In this chapter we describe the origins, assumptions, and current conceptualization of the theory, and detail the empirical findings that MFT has made possible, both within social psychology and beyond. Looking toward the future, we embrace several critiques of the theory, and specify five criteria for determining what should be considered a foundation of human morality. Finally, we suggest a variety of future directions for MFT and for moral psychology.

Moral Foundations Theory

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Table of Contents 1 The Origins of Moral Foundations Theory .................................................................................. 5 2 The Current Theory ..................................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Nativism ................................................................................................................................. 7 2.2 Cultural learning .................................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Intuitionism .......................................................................................................................... 10 2.4 Pluralism .............................................................................................................................. 12 2.4.1 The Care/harm Foundation ............................................................................................ 12 2.4.2 The Fairness/cheating Foundation ................................................................................. 13 2.4.3 The Loyalty/betrayal Foundation................................................................................... 13 2.4.4 The Authority/subversion Foundation ........................................................................... 13 2.4.5 The Sanctity/degradation Foundation ............................................................................ 14 3 Empirical Findings ..................................................................................................................... 14 3.1 Methods and Measures ........................................................................................................ 14 3.2 Moral Foundations and Political Ideology........................................................................... 15 3.2.1 Ideology in Five Dimensions ......................................................................................... 16 3.2.2 Personality-Morality-Ideology Linkages ....................................................................... 17 3.2.3 Political Stereotypes and Interpersonal Judgment ......................................................... 19 3.2.4 Beyond Liberal and Conservative.................................................................................. 20 3.3 Moral Foundations and Other Psychological Constructs .................................................... 22 3.3.1 Attitudes ......................................................................................................................... 23 3.3.2 Emotion .......................................................................................................................... 23 3.3.3 Moral Character .......................