A PORTRAIT OF
NEW YORK CITY 2018 WELL-BEING IN THE FIVE BOROUGHS AND THE GREATER METRO AREA
NYC METRO AREA: CONNECTICUT Health • In a ranking of the metro area’s 170 public use microdata areas (PUMAs)—neighborhood and town clusters defined by the US Census Bureau—by life expectancy, no Connecticut communities place among the top ten. • Two of the bottom ten PUMAs are located in Connecticut. New Haven has a life expectancy of 78.4 years, ranking 161st, and Waterbury has a life expectancy of 77.8, ranking 166th in the metro area. Education • The Connecticut PUMA made up of Fairfield, New Canaan, Wilton, Weston, and Easton Towns has the third-highest Education Index score in the metro area, 9.39. Education Index scores are developed using two indicators: school enrollment and educational degree attainment. • There are no PUMAs in Connecticut that rank in the ten lowest-scoring areas according to the Education Index. Earnings • The Fairfield, New Canaan, Wilton, Weston, and Easton Towns PUMA rounds out the ten highest-earning areas, with median earnings of $61,237. • There are no Connecticut communities that rank among the metro area’s ten lowest-earning PUMAs. Immigration to Connecticut • Litchfield County, New Haven County, and Fairfield County experienced 29 percent, 40 percent, and 64 percent increases in their foreign-born populations between 2000 and 2016. • Some argue that the promise of homeownership, a more financially viable prospect in suburbs than in increasingly high-cost city centers, attracts immigrants who yearn for the permanence, legitimacy, and stability that owning a home provides. • Immigrants head to the suburbs in search of the same things as native-born residents—better schools, more space, backyards, less noise, greater safety, and a less-hectic pace. The Five New Yorks Gilded New York: One Connecticut PUMA is part of Gilded New York, an opportunity wonderland where the extraordinarily well educated and affluent have access to the best the world has to offer. The average American Human Development (HD) Index score is 9.18. Opportunity-Rich New York: Four Connecticut PUMAs are part of Opportunity-Rich New York. The average HD Index Score is 7.68, and the life expectancy of Opportunity-Rich New Yorkers is two years longer than the metro area average. Main Street New York: The average HD Index Score is 6.32. Six Connecticut PUMAs are considered to be Main Street New York; all are found farther away from New York City. Struggling New York: Struggling New York scores 4.88 on the HD Index. New Haven, Waterbury, and Bridgeport, all industrial cities in Connecticut, are part of Struggling New York. Precarious New York: There are no PUMAs in Connecticut that are part of Precarious New York.
Spotlight: Residential Segregation in Connecticut The Fairfield, New Canaan, Wilton, Weston, and Easton neighborhood cluster has the sixth-highest HD Index in the metro area, at 8.88. Nearby, Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk was among the top five most-segregated metro areas by income overall (among the 100 largest metro areas in the US). According to Brown University’s Diversity and Disparities Project data tool, Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk ranked first out of the 100 metros for the segregation of affluent; rich families in this metro area were more likely than families anywhere else in the country to live among other rich families. Residential segregation has dramatic and distinct consequences for both low- and high-income families; because “opportunities and resources are unevenly distributed in time and space, some neighborhoods have safer streets, higher home values, better services, more effective schools, and more supportive peer environments than others.”1 Residential segregation today is maintained by zoning laws across metro area suburbs that limit or prohibit multifamily housing and require that single-family houses sit on lots that meet minimum size requirements, making the construction of apartments and affordable houses extremely difficult; by skyrocketing income inequality a