QSEM Series Round Five Report - Livelihoods and Food Security ...

Nonfarm enterprises have become more common as households have experienced improved access to ...... We can become rich here if we eat two meals in ...
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2016

QSEM Series Round Five Report

funded by:

LIVELIHOODS AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN RURAL MYANMAR QUALITATIVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC MONITORING ROUND FIVE REPORT – JANUARY 2016

ENLIGHTENED MYANMAR RESEARCH AND WORLD BANK COMMISSIONED BY THE LIVELIHOODS AND FOOD SECURITY TRUST FUND

Funded by

This report has not undergone the review accorded to official World Bank publications. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of the World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank the European Union and governments of Australia, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States of America for their contributions to the Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund. From the private sector, we thank the Mitsubishi Corporation for its kind contribution to the fund. DISCLAIMER This document is supported with financial assistance from Australia, Denmark, the European Union, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the Mitsubishi Corporation. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of any of the LIFT donors.

CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I

THE LIVELIHOODS CONTEXT

II

THE VILLAGE CONTEXT

IV

ENGAGING BEYOND THE VILLAGE

V

RECOMMENDATIONS VI

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 7 THE CONTEXT

9

RESEARCH DESIGN

12

THE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

13

THE SAMPLE

14

THE FIELDWORK

14

REPORT STRUCTURE

17

CHAPTER TWO: THE LIVELIHOODS CONTEXT

18

INTRODUCTION 20 LIVELIHOODS 20 FARMERS 22 LABORERS 25 NONFARM BUSINESS

28

MIGRATION 30 SHOCKS AND VULNERABILITY

34

PROBLEMS AND SHOCKS

34

VULNERABILITY 36 CHANGES IN INFLUENCING FACTORS

39

ACCESS TO CREDIT

39

LAND 43

CHAPTER THREE: THE VILLAGE CONTEXT

48

SOCIAL CAPITAL

50

VILLAGE GOVERNANCE

54

TURNOVER OF LEADERSHIP POSITIONS

55

THE VILLAGE TRACT ADMINISTRATOR

56

THE VILLAGE ADMINISTRATOR

57

OTHER VILLAGE INSTITUTIONS

58

EMERGING IMPLICATIONS

60

CHAPTER FOUR: ENGAGING BEYOND THE VILLAGE

62

ENGAGING GOVERNMENT

64

INCREASING SERVICES

64

DECISION-MAKING AND INFORMATION FLOWS

66

MANAGING EXPECTATIONS

69

ENGAGING DONORS

71

AID RECEIVED

71

LESSONS FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF DONOR PROGRAMS

73

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

76

RECOMMENDATIONS 78 LIVELIHOODS 78 VILLAGE GOVERNANCE

79

TOWNSHIP CAPACITY

79

TABLES TABLE 1: RESPONDENTS PER ROUND

16

TABLE 2: AVERAGE DAILY WAGES FOR HARVESTING ACROSS ROUNDS (MALE, PEAK)

25
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