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Inventory of possible crop cultivation changes as a result of the introduction of GM crops in the Maritime zone of Europe: An overview for Maize, Sugar beet and Potato

CG M 2 012- 0 9 O N DE R ZOEK S R A P P O R T

Inventory of possible crop cultivation changes as a result of the introduction of GM crops in the Maritime zone of Europe An overview for Maize, Sugar beet and Potato

M.M. Riemens1, C.C.M. van de Wiel1, L. van den Brink2, C.B. Bus2 & L.A.P. Lotz1

1 2

Plant Research International, part of Wageningen UR Applied Plant Research, part of Wageningen UR

Plant Research International, part of Wageningen UR Business Unit Agrosystems November 2012

Report 489

© 2012 Wageningen, Foundation Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (DLO) research institute Plant Research International. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the DLO, Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems. The Foundation DLO is not responsible for any damage caused by using the content of this report.

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Table of contents page

Summary

1

Samenvatting

5

Abbreviations and Definitions

9

1.

2.

Introduction

11

1.1 1.2

11 12

Observed crop cultivation changes after GM introduction: Maize, Soybean Cotton, Sugar beet and Potato 2.1

2.2

3.

Background and aim Methodology

Available GM crops Maize Soybean Cotton Sugar beet Potato Agricultural changes since introduction Tillage Pesticide use Resistance Effects on non-GM systems

15 15 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 25 27

Maize in the Maritime zone

29

3.1

29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 33 33

3.2

3.3

Current crop cultivation practices Cultivation areas Tillage and soil structure Weed control Insect control Traits incorporated into GM maize Herbicide resistance Insect resistance Drought tolerance Output traits Cultivation changes likely to occur in the Maritime zone Weed control Tillage, green manure crops and harvest Insect control Irrigation

4.

Sugar beet in the Maritime zone

35

4.1

35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 38

4.2 4.3

5.

Potato in the Maritime zone

39

5.1

39 39 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41

5.2

5.3

6.

Current crop cultivation practices Cultivation area Tillage Weed control Insect control Traits incorporated into GM sugar beet Cultivation changes likely to occur in the Maritime zone Weed control and crop rotation Tillage Insect and disease control

Current crop cultivation Cultivation area Tillage Crop protection Traits incorporated into GM potato Starch composition Late blight resistance Cultivation changes likely to occur in the Maritime zone Production chain Disease control

Discussion and conclusion

43

Maize Sugar beet Potato

43 44 45

References

47

1

Summary This report is the result of a project answering the following research question formulated by COGEM: what cultivation changes can be expected in the maritime zone of Europe after