Small farms - European Parliament - Europa EU

Apr 16, 2014 - Small area and economically small farms by Member State. 69% of all farms in the .... Organic farming and small area farms. Some 9 million ...
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Briefing

Statistical Spotlight - 16/04/2014

Predominant farm size

Less than 50% small (up to 5 ha) Predominant farm size Less than 50% medium (between 5 and 50 ha) Lessbig than 50%than small50ha) (up to 5 ha) Less than 50% (more 1. Predominant farm area Less small than 50% medium (between 5 and 50 ha) More than 50% (up to 5 ha) In 2015 farmers will have the possibiliLess than 50% big (more than 50ha) More than 50% medium (between 5 and ha) Predominantly large farms (> 50 50%) Predominantly medium farms (> 50%) ty to opt for the small farmers’ scheme, More than 50% small (up to 5 ha) More than 50% big (more than 50ha) which will regroup into one lump-sum Predominantly medium farms (<50%) Predominantly large farms (< 50%) More than 50% medium (between 5 and 50 ha) all direct payments for approximately More than 50% big (more than 50ha)

Small Farms

2,3 million eligible farms, whose support does not exceed €1 250. The European Parliament resolution on the future of small agricultural holdings highlights the role of small farms in preserving Europe’s countryside and biodiversity, as well as their role in preserving local manufacturing traditions and products, and providing a livelihood for millions of Europeans. It also highlights the difficulties of establishing a single universal definition of what constitutes a small farm. For the purpose of this paper, a small farm has been defined as one with either a surface of less than 5 hectares or with an economic output of less than €25 000. As illustrated here, statistics on small farms vary widely, depending on whether economic (some 3 million farms and 20 million regular workers) or physical (more than 8 million farms and 16 million workers) criteria are used to define them. Author: Eulalia Claros, Members’Research Service European Parliament Research Service 140794REV1 Page 1 of 6

http://www.eprs.ep.parl.union.eu — http://epthinktank.eu — [email protected]

Predominantly small farms (> 50%) Predominantly small farms (< 50%)

The map shows the distribution of agricultural farms according to surface classification as follows: Small: up to 5 ha Medium: between 5 and 50 ha Big: more than 50 ha In twelve predominantly southern and eastern regions small farms represent more than 90% of all farms (from Romania to Portugal through Greece, Italy and Bulgaria), whilst they are less than 5% of overall farm numbers in Sjælland, Midtjylland and Nordjylland in Denmark, Niedersachsen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Bayern in Germany and in the British regions of Northumberland and Tyne and Wear, West Midlands and Northern Ireland.

© Eu

© EuroGeographics for the administrative boundaries

Further information on page 5

© EuroGeographics for the administrati

nd fruit trees

Vineyards

Cereals

Small Farms

EPRS 3. Economically small farms by region

2. Small area and economically small farms by Member State 69% of all farms in the EU-28, have a surface of less than 5 hectares and together represent 7% of the EU’s agricultural area. Farms with an output of less than €25 000 represent 86% of all EU farms, but their combined output of €11 billion accounts for only 13% of the economic output from all EU farms.

61

69

87 95

43

as % of all farms

96 28 34

28

90 61

39

86 62

27

90 91

77

Between 50% and 75% Between 25% and 50% No data

90% and over From 60% to less than 90% From 30% to less than 60% From 10% to less than 30% Less than 10% 24 % of farms of small economic size

51

More than 75%

Less than 25%

Number of small farms as % of all farms

74

Number of economically small farms as % of all farms

96

In Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Portugal and in the majority of regions in Greece, more than 95% of farms have an economic output of less than €25 000. By contrast, less than 25% of farms in 14 regions across the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and France fall into this category.

99

94

81

97

ze 92

94

93

Further information on page 5

Members’ Research Service 16/04/2014 140794REV1 Page 2 of 6

Small Farms

EPRS 5. Production specialisation of small area farms

4. Economic output of small farms Average output of economically small farms (left axis) €thousand 24

Average output of small area farms (right axis) €thousand 280 Horticultural Horticulturalproducts products

More Morethan than75% 75%

Horticultural Horticultural products products

Berries Berriesand andfruit fruittrees trees

Cereals

% of specialist farms

Horticultural produce

Vineyards

Belgium Vineyards Vineyards Belgium Cereals Cereals More than 75% Horticultural products and fruit trees Cereals Vineyards Cereals Horticultural products Berries Berries and fruit trees Vineyards Bulgaria Bulgaria

Horticultural products Berries and fruit trees Berries Berries and and fruit fruit trees trees Vineyards Vineyards Cereals Cereals Berries and fruit trees More than 75%Horticultural products More than 75%

Cereals Cereals

Vineyards Vineyards

Czech Republic Czech republic Horticultural products Vineyards 240 Cereals Horticultural products Berries and fruit treesHorticultural Vineyards Berries and fruit trees Cereals Horticultural products Berries and fruit trees products Vineyards Cereals Berries and fruit trees Vineyards Cereals More than 75% More More than than 75% 75% Denmark More than 75% Denmark Between 50% and 75% More Morethan than50% 50%and and More than 50%75% and More than 50% and More than Germany Germany More than 75% More than 75% less than 75% More than 75% less less than than 75% 75% less than 75% Estonia More than 50% and Estonia 18 More than 50% and More More than than 50% 50% and and less than 75% less than 75% less less than than 75% 75% More than 25% and 200 More Morethan than25% 25%and and More than 25% and Ireland Ireland More than 50% and less than 50% less less than than 50% 50% More than 50% and less than 50% More than 50% and More than 50% and less than 75% less than 75% less than 75% less than 75% Between 25% and 50% Greece Greece More than 25% and More than 25% and More More than than 25% 25% and and less than 50% less than 50% less less than than 50% 50% Spain 15 Spain More than 25% and More than 25% More than 25% and lessand than 50% More than 25% and less than 50% less than 50% France less than 50% France 160 Croaa Croatia Italy Italy 12 61 61 61 61 Cyprus Cyprus 61 69 61 87 69 87 120 69 69 61 61 87 87 Latvia Latvia 95 95 61 43 43 95 95 74 69 61 87 74 69 43 43 Lithuania Lithuania 61 96 87 96 74 74 09 61 69 69 87 51 96 9687 95 51 95 InFarms thewithEU28, ofthan all % of all farms 28 43 28 69 51 51 87 74 43 Luxembourg a surface of less 74 69 95 95 28 as5%haofas 87 Farms with a surface of less than 5 28 ha all farms Luxembourg 96 34 90 96 34 43 43 90 Farms Farmswith withaasurface surfaceofofless lessthan than55ha haasas%%ofofallallfarms farms farms 28 74 74 specialised 34 51 95 6969 28 8787 34 51 90 90 96 96 43 28 95 Hungary Hungary 74 28 28 28 43 Farms with a surface 5 ha as % of all farms Less than 10%51 61 51 of less than 74 9595 96 80 Less than 61 34 Farms with a 10% surface of less than 528 ha as % of43 all farms 90 28 96 34 in cereal 43 61 39 51 74 to produc28 39 Less Less than than 10% 10% of 61 8690 86 From less than 30% 74 Malta 28 From 10% to10% less than 30% Farms Farms with with aa surface surface of less less than than 55 ha ha as as % % of of all all farms farms 51 28 34 34 9696 62 90 90 Malta 06 27 39 3951 28 27 62 86 86 Farms with a 10% surface of less than 5 ha as % of all farms From From10% 10%totoless lessthan than30% 30% From 30% to less than 60% 96 Lessto than 28 34 61 From less 60% 96 tion, 54% are 90 Less than 10% Farms with30% a surface ofthan less51 than 528 ha as % of all farms 61 99 28 62 62 34 27 27 90 90 28 28 39 86 99 90 From From30% 30%to tosurface less lessthan than 60% 60%than 5 ha as % of all farms Netherlands 96 96 Netherlands39 28 From60% 10%to toless lessthan than 30% 94 From Farms with a10% less 94 6286 From 10% less than 30% 90% Less Less than than 60% toto less than 90% 61 61 Farms with a 10% surface ofof less than 5 ha as % of all farms From 34 99 99 90 27 34 90 90 90 62 77 Less than 10% 61 small area farms. 27 From 30% to less than 60% 96 28 39 39 77 86 86 91 94 94 From From 60% less than 90% From Over 30% to less than 60% 28 96 From From60% 10% 10%toto to toless less lessthan than than90% 30% 30% 91 Austria Less 10% 61 81 90% 99 81 Overthan 90%From 39 86 99 97 90 Austria 10% less than 30% 62 62 77 77 60% 90 27 27 39 94 97 From toto less than 90% Less than 10% 91 91 From 10% toto less 30% From From 30% 30% to to less less than than 60% 60% 96 94 86 62 From 60% lessthan than 90% Less than 10% % of farms of small economic size 6161 96 81 81 27 Over Over 90% 90% 24farms area % of of small economic 24 Small 99 99 77 From 30% to lessfarms thansize 60% 96 62 27 40 39 97 97 86 90 90 77 39 From 10% to less than 30% 8691 99 From 30% to 90% less than 60% 96 81 Poland Over 10% tosmall less than 30% 94 9491Poland From From 60% 60% to toof less less than than 90% 90% 90 %From ofoffarms farms of small economic economic size size 81 03 24 24 % Over 90% 99 94 From 60% to less 90% 90 6262 92 97 2727 97 account for athan high 92 From 30% less than 60% 77 77to 94 93 From than 90% % of less farms of small economic size From 30% toto less than 60% 9696 2460% 91 91 99 77 81 81 24 % of farms of small economic size Over Over 90% 90% Portugal 99 90 91 Portugal 90 91 94 81 Over 90% 92 9277 97 97 93 93 From 60% to less than 90% 94 81 From 60% to less than 90% Over 90% 97 proportion of % % of of farms farms of of small small economic economic size size 92 24 24 %77 of farms of small economic size 92 97 93 91 24 77 Romania Romania Over 90% 2491% of farms of small economic size 8181 Over 90% 94 94 farms specialising 9797 92 92 93 93 % of farms of small economic size 92 24 24 % of farms of small economic size Slovenia Slovenia 92 93 00 00 in horticultural 9494 94 94 92 93 92 93 Slovakia Slovakia production, of 9494 94 94 Finland Finland vineyards and or94 94 Sweden Sweden Average economic output of small area farms varies greatly across Memchards (81% ,73% United Kingdom United kingdom

93 93 93

RO LV LT BG HU HR PL SI GR PT CY MT IT AT EE SK LU ES IE SE FR FI UK CZ BE DE NL DK

21

Orchards

ber States, depending, among other things, upon the farm’s product specialisation.

and 76% respectively).

Further information on page 5

Members’ Research Service 16/04/2014 140794REV1 Page 3 of 6

EPRS

Small Farms 6. Organic farming and small area farms

7. Small farms labour force

80 75

25

70 60

20 51 15

41 42 37

10

25 27

5 10 0

12 13

14 15 15

16

18

20

5 5 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 0 1 SK SE CZ UK LV DK LT DE BE EE IE FI HU FR LU PT NL PL RO ES AT BG HR IT SI GR CY

Some 9 million hectares were cultivated organically in the EU-28 in 2010, 5% of those in small farms of less than 5 hectares.

50 40 30 20 10 00

1.00

90 30

sons worked as regular workforce in farms with an output of less than €25 000 in 2010, whilst there were 15 520 people working in farms of less than 5 hectares. Only in the Netherlands and Malta, is the regular work force in small area farms bigger than the one in economically small farms.

0.75

In Sweden, more

100 than 85 690 per-

35

at be bg cy cz de dk ee es fi fr gr hr hu ie it lt lu lv mt nl pl pt ro se si sk uk

0.50

Small organic farms % of all organic farms

in small area farms

AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GR HR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK

12

in economically small farms

0.25

% of agricultural labour force

Organic area % of total agricultural area

0.00

Organic area in small farms as % of organic area

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%

Further information on page 5 and 6

Notes

Country code: Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), Cyprus (CY), Czech Republic (CZ), Denmark (DK), Estonia (EE), Finland (FI), France (FR), Germany (DE), Greece (GR), Croatia (HR), Hungary (HU), Ireland (IE), Italy (IT), Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Luxembourg (LU), Malta (MT), Netherlands (NL), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovakia (SK), Slovenia (SI), Spain (ES), Sweden (SE), United Kingdom (UK), European Union (EU28). Extraction date: data has been extracted in March 2014.

Members’ Research Service 16/04/2014 140794REV1 Page 4 of 6

Small Farms

EPRS

Further information Definitions All figures quoted are sourced in the Farm Structure Survey compiled by Eurostat from surveys carried out by the Member States for the reference year 2010. Regional data is reported according to the NUTS 2010 classification. NUTS level II regions are presented in both maps in page 1 and two, with the exception of Germany where NUTS level I regions are displayed. The standard output of a specific agricultural product is the average monetary value of that agricultural product at farm-gate price, in euro per hectare. The sum of all the standard output per hectare of crop and per head of livestock in a farm is a measure of its overall economic size. 1. Predominant farm area The map presents the distribution of the farms across the EU NUTS level II regions, according to the predominant farm area in each region. Farms have thus been distributed in three groups, according to their surface: Large farms (more than 50 hectares); medium farms (between 5 and 50 hectares) and small farms (less than 5 hectares). In each group a different colour shade indicates whether the predominance is of more or less than 50%. For instance, the Belgian province of Antwerpen, for which the small-medium-large distribution is of 31%, 58%, 11% appears in the map in dark orange whilst in the German Hamburg, where small farms are 54% of all farms and medium and large farms are respectively 37% and 9%, the map colour is dark blue, and Eastern Scotland with a distribution of 5%, 39% and 56% is dark green. Data source:Eurostat

2. Small area and economically small farms The map presents in different shades the share of small area farms (of less than 5 hectares) across Member States and in the circles the percentage of economically small farms, with a standard economic output of less than €25 000. Generally speaking, countries where small area farms are predominant

tend also to be those where the economic size of most farm is small. On the other hand, in Member States with fewer small area farms the frequency of farms of small economic size also tends to be smaller. Data source: Eurostat

3. Economically small farms by NUTS II region The second map on this page presents the European regions shaded acording to the share represented by farms with an standard output of less than €25 000. Regions with very few farms of small economic size include, in addition to the urban regions of Hamburg, Ile de France, Berlin, Bruxelles and Inner London, Flevoland, Zeeland, Namur and 8 other regions, also in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany, below the threshold of 25%. At the opposite extreme, there are 42 regions in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Portugal, Poland and Hungary where 90% of the farms are of small economic size. Data source: Eurostat

4. Economic output of small farms The bar chart presents the average output both of economically small farms (less than €25 000 of standard economic output) in the left axis and of small area farms (of less than 5 hectares) in the right axis. Average output is expressed in € 1 000 per farm and is calculated as the standard output divided by the number of farms under each category. The standard output, excluding direct payments and production costs, cannot be taken as a measure of the farm’s productivity, though it is a useful criterion for comparison. Whilst average output of economically small farms is rather homogeneous across Member States, the distribution of the small area farms output is more diverse, with 6 Members States well above the average. Data source:Eurostat

5. Production specialisation of small area farms The infographic presents, for a selection of agricultural products, the part that small area farms represent in the total number of farms under each product specialisation. In Slovakia, for instance, small farms are predominant among orchards and those producing vegetables, whilst they are less than

Members’ Research Service 16/04/2014 140794REV1 Page 5 of 6

EPRS

Small Farms

50% of the vineyards and farms specialised in cereals production. In Italy or in Romania small area farms are predominant in any of the selected production specialities. Data source:Eurostat

6. Organic farming and small farms The chart looks at the relationship between small area farms and organic farming, from two diferent perspectives: i) the yellow bars present, where relevant, the area cultivated organically in small farms as percentage of the total area cultivated organically. ii) the encircled figures show the percentage of small area farms among or-

ganic farms. In addition, the green bars show the total agricultural area that is cultivated organically in each Member State. Malta has not been included due to inconsistencies on organic farming data.

Data source: Eurostat

7. Small farms labour force The graph presents the regular labour force directly employed by small farms as percentage of the total regular labour force of all farms. Regular labour force consists of persons permanently employed in the farm, as well as those who work on an occasional basis (including family members).

Members’Research Service 140794REV1

Data source: Eurostat

16/04/2014 Page 6 of 6

This document provides a general statistical overview: Members requiring more detailed statistical information or analysis are welcome to contact the EPRS Disclaimer and Copyright: This document is a summary of published information and does not necessarily represent the views of the author or the European Parliament. The document is exclusively addressed to the Members and staff of the European Parliament for their parliamentary work. Links to information sources within this document may be inaccessible from locations outside the European Parliament network. Copyright © European Parliament, 2014. All rights reserved. http://www.eprs.ep.parl.union.eu — http://epthinktank.eu — [email protected]