Social Science Information

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Innovation in Innovation: The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations Henry Etzkowitz Social Science Information 2003 42: 293 DOI: 10.1177/05390184030423002 The online version of this article can be found at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/42/3/293

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Studies of science Etudes sur la science Henry Etzkowitz

Innovation in innovation: the Triple Helix of university±industry±government relations Abstract. Innovation is increasingly based upon a ``Triple Helix'' of university± industry±government interactions. The increased importance of knowledge and the role of the university in incubation of technology-based ®rms has given it a more prominent place in the institutional ®rmament. The entrepreneurial university takes a proactive stance in putting knowledge to use and in broadening the input into the creation of academic knowledge. Thus it operates according to an interactive rather than a linear model of innovation. As ®rms raise their technological level, they move closer to an academic model, engaging in higher levels of training and in sharing of knowledge. Government acts as a public entrepreneur and venture capitalist in addition to its traditional regulatory role in setting the rules of the game. Moving beyond product development, innovation then becomes an endogenous process of ``taking the role of the other'', encouraging hybridization among the institutional spheres. Key words. Entrepreneurial university ± Innovation ± Interdisciplinarity ± Triple Helix

This article is the keynote address to the International Congress ``Universities and Regional Development in the Knowledge Society'', Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, 12 November 2001. An earlier version was presented to the ``Mode 2'' Workshop at Le MuseÂe de l'Homme, Paris. The analysis is based on studies of university-industry relations sponsored by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and of university±industry± government relations sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The National Research Agency (CNPQ) in Brazil, the state science agency in Rio de Janeiro (FABERJ) and the Center for Business and Policy Studies (SNS) in Sweden provided additional support. More than 200 in-depth interviews were conducted with academic researchers, incubator and science park managers, and founders of high-tech ®rms. Social Science Information & 2003 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi), 42(3), pp. 293±337. 0539-0184[200309]42:3;293±337;035103

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294 Social Science Information Vol 42 ± no 3 ReÂsumeÂ. L'innovation s'appuie de plus en plus sur un modeÁle de ``triple heÂlice'' d'interactions universite±industrie±gouvernement. L'importance accrue du savoir et le roÃle de l'universite dans ``l'incubation'' d'entreprises hautement axeÂes sur la technologie lui a donne une place de choix dans le ®rmament institutionnel. L'universiteÂentrepreneur est un moteur important pour la production du savoir applique et l'eÂlargissement des conditions de la production du savoir universitaire. Elle opeÁre donc selon un modeÁle d'innovation interactif plutoÃt que lineÂaire. Tout en augmentant leur niveau de technologie, les entreprises tendent aÁ se rapprocher d'