Speech and Language Processing - DeepSky

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Speech and Language Processing

AI

PRENTICE HALL SERIES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Editors

G RAHAM M UGGLETON RUSSELL & N ORVIG J URAFSKY & M ARTIN

ANSI Common Lisp Logical Foundations of Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Speech and Language Processing

Speech and Language Processing An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics and Speech Recognition

Daniel Jurafsky and James H. Martin

Draft of September 28, 1999. Do not cite without permission.

Contributing writers: Andrew Kehler, Keith Vander Linden, Nigel Ward

Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jurafsky, Daniel S. (Daniel Saul) Speech and Langauge Processing / Daniel Jurafsky, James H. Martin. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN

Publisher: Alan Apt

c 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.

A Simon & Schuster Company Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632

The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 10 9

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Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., Mexico Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Simon & Schuster Asia Pte. Ltd., Singapore Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro

For my parents — D.J. For Linda — J.M.

Summary of Contents 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I Words 2 3 4 5 6 7

Regular Expressions and Automata. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Morphology and Finite-State Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Computational Phonology and Text-to-Speech . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Probabilistic Models of Pronunciation and Spelling . . . . . . 139 N-grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 HMMs and Speech Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

II Syntax 8 9 10 11 12 13

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Word Classes and Part-of-Speech Tagging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Context-Free Grammars for English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Parsing with Context-Free Grammars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Features and Unification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Lexicalized and Probabilistic Parsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Language and Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473

III Semantics 14 15 16 17

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Representing Meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Semantic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 Lexical Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 Word Sense Disambiguation and Information Retrieval . . 627

IV Pragmatics 18 19 20 21 A B C D

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Discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .