Standards and Standardisation A practical guide for researchers

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR RESEARCH & INNOVATION Directorate G - Industrial technologies

Standards and Standardisation A practical guide for researchers

Author Dr. Peter Hatto

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Contents 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Purpose of the guide............................................................................................................. 3 1.2 Roles of standards in modern society .................................................................................. 3 1.3 Who makes standards and why ........................................................................................... 4 1.4 Standards and regulations .................................................................................................... 5 1.5 Formal and informal standards ............................................................................................. 6 1.6 Types and examples of documents from formal standards bodies. .................................... 7 1.7 Standards as a means of disseminating and implementing the results of research ......... 12 2 Preparing for standardization .................................................................................................... 14 2.1 Recognising needs and opportunities for standardization ................................................. 14 2.2 Research results appropriate for standardization .............................................................. 14 2.3 Standards versus patents – which option and why? .......................................................... 15 2.4 What is needed before starting? Verification and validation. ............................................. 16 2.5 Which type of standard deliverable? .................................................................................. 17 2.6 Under which standards organisation should a standard be developed?........................... 18 2.7 Joint working between committees and between standards organisations....................... 20 2.8 Standardization project characterization template ............................................................. 21 2.9 The new work item proposal and approval processes....................................................... 21 3 The standards development process ........................................................................................ 23 3.1 The ISO/IEC Directives and CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations................................... 23 3.2 The standards development substructure .......................................................................... 23 3.3 The role of experts, commitment required, and the role of consensus.............................. 25 3.4 Elements of a standard ....................................................................................................... 27 3.4.1 Normative and informative elements ........................................................................... 27 3.4.2 Structural elements ...................................................................................................... 28 3.4.3 Words with specific meaning in a standard ................................................................. 30 3.5 Document development and review checklist .................................................................... 31 4 The approval and review process ............................................................................................. 32 4.1 Who, when and how ...............................................