Research & Information Services Toronto District School Board November 2016 Report No. 16/17-08

TITLE: Teaching and Learning Mathematics Research Series l: Effective Instructional Strategies AUTHORS: Erhan Sinay and Ashley Nahornick Copyright © Toronto District School Board (November 2016) Cite as: Sinay, E., & Nahornick, A. (2016). Teaching and learning mathematics research series l: Effective instructional strategies. (Research Report No. 16/17-08). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Toronto District School Board. Reproduction of this document for use in the schools of the Toronto District School Board is encouraged. For any other purpose, permission must be requested and obtained in writing from: Research & Information Services Toronto District School Board 1 Civic Centre Court, Lower Level Etobicoke, ON M9C 2B3 Fax:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE ...........................................................................................3 Create a Supportive and Engaging Classroom Environment .....................................3 Provide Strong Mathematics Foundations in the Early Years ...................................4 Importance of Early Years’ Mathematics...................................................................5 Create Appropriate Curriculum Standards ................................................................5 Develop Knowledge of Children’s Developmental Process .......................................5 Implement Appropriate Classroom Activities............................................................6 Teach Mathematics in an Interdisciplinary Manner ..................................................6 Maintain Positive Attitudes about Mathematics .......................................................6 Be Knowledgeable about Mathematics .....................................................................7 Early Years Strategies and Programs from Other Jurisdictions .................................7 Australia .........................................................................................................7 Prince Edward Island – Canada ......................................................................7 United Kingdom .............................................................................................7 EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR ALL GRADES ...................................................... 9 Teach for Conceptual Understanding ........................................................................9 Teach Reasoning Skills ...............................................................................................10 Promote Problem-solving ..........................................................................................11 Creativity in Mathematics ..........................................................................................12 Encourage and Support Collaboration in Mathematics ............................................13 Provide an Inquiry Environment ................................................................................14 Use Three-Part Mathematics Lesson Plans ...............................................................15 Teaching and Learning with Technology ...................................................................15 Develop Mental Mathematics Skills ..........................................................................18 Have High Expectations .............................................................................................19 Assign Meaningful Homework ...................................................................................20 Make Mathematic