The Chinchorro culture - unesdoc - Unesco

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A Comparative Perspective. The archaeology of the earliest human mummification

Nuria Sanz Bernardo T. Arriaza Vivien G. Standen Editors

Arica 2014

Published in 2014 by the United Nations Educational, Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP Mexico, Presidente Masaryk 526, Polanco, Miguel Hid Published in 2014 by the United Nations Educational, and Cultural de Tarapacá, Arica, Aric D.F., Mexico, andScientific Universidad

Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France, the UNESCO Office in Mexico, Presidente Masaryk 526, Polanco, Miguel Hidalgo, 11550 Ciudad de México, D.F., México, and Universidad© de UNESCO Tarapacá, Arica,2014 Arica and Parinacota, Chile. © UNESCO 2014

ISBN 978-92-3-100020-1

ISBN 978-92-3-100020-1

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Editors: Nuria Sanz, Bernardo T. Arriaza, Vivien G. Standen Cover photo: Raúl Rocha The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication a Cover design: Octavio Lagos and Manuel Alarcón Graphicnot design: Andros Impresores necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit t Illustrations: Photos and images presented in the texts are the copyrights of the authors unless otherwise indicated. Printed by: Andros Impresores Printed in Chile

Editors: Nuria Sanz, Bernardo T. Arriaza, Vivien G. Sta Cover photo: Raúl Rocha Cover design: Octavio Lagos and Manuel Alarcón Graphic design: Andros Impresores

THE CHINCHORRO CULTURE: A Comparative Perspective. The archaeology of the earliest human mummification

Foreword UNESCO

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In 1998 Council of National Monuments submitted the Archaeological Sites of the Chinchorro Culture for nomination to the Tentative List of the World Heritage Center of UNESCO. The nomination was justified on the terms of selection criteria iii: “to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared”. These pages provide a clear testimony to the Outstanding Universal Value of Chile’s Chinchorro Culture, while presenting case studies that forge the comparative analysis of the culture, which is notable for its gradual implementation of complex funerary rituals, which included preparing the remains of the dead through a sophisticated process of artificial mummification which was developed 3000 years earlier than the mummification technique of Egypt. This tradition lasted 4000 years. The Chinchorro Culture is also notable for their exceptional adapting to a coastal setting. For thousands of years the Chinchorro developed and kept alive their culture in one of the world’s most arid deserts.

FOREWORD UNESCO

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