Agric. sci. dev., Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014. pp. 323-325
Agriculture Science Developments www.tijournals.com
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The Influencing Factors on Entrepreneurship Development of Users in Greenhouse Town of Hashtgerd Farhad Lashgarara * Department of Agricultural Extension, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sahar Aryana Department of Rural development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *Corresponding author: [email protected]
Entrepreneurship development Greenhouse town Users
Development of entrepreneurship activities in greenhouse units, require sufficient familiarity with influencing factors on entrepreneurship development of such units. The main aim of this research is to explore the influencing factors on entrepreneurship development of greenhouse town users of Hashtgerd. The main tool for data collection is questionnaire. The statistical population is 39 persons from Hashtgerd greenhouse town users. Dependent variable is the development of entrepreneurship for Hashtgerd greenhouse town users. Information from the questionnaire by SPSS was analyzed. The results from stepwise regression indicated that the economic factors with 41.3 percent have the most influencing role in entrepreneurship development of Hashtgerd greenhouse town users
The agriculture sector as the main source of income for the most countries of the world in economic activities is very important. The sector due to its high contribution in GNP and export incomes play the critical role in directing and positioning the economic development process especially in third world countries. The agriculture development cannot be fulfilled only by injection of capital and technology to agriculture sector but this is a multidimensional process that many factors intervene on it. The optimization and reinforcement of human resource in agriculture development is undeniable. A kind of investment that today is unavoidable for public and private sector from the expert point of views is to reinforce and develop the entrepreneurship in agriculture sector . Nowadays the agriculture is considered as a sector for complementing the economy and entrepreneurship activities as response to recession and problems in agriculture sector and survival strategy for rural family. One of the suitable options toward competition and commercializing the agriculture sector and active involvement in global markets is to develop the trade units for greenhouse usage . The greenhouse town is a set of greenhouses that is focused in a common space, this is an incorporated and coordinated cultivation and for avoidance from breaking apart the lands and lead to reduction of production costs, enhancement of production productivity, and as a result increasing the farmers income. The greenhouse town of Hashtgerd is the first and biggest hydroponic greenhouse town of Iran by an area amounted 170 hectares that after completing, 1300 skilled and non-skilled person will be employed there. Raman et al. (2008) in a researched titled motivational factors influencing on entrepreneurship decision making believes that the motivation and environmental conditions play the important role in entrepreneurship . Hindle (2006) in his research considered the job satisfaction and age as the most important variables influencing on entrepreneurship . Royer (2003) considered the job satisfaction and age as the most important variable influencing on entrepreneurship too . Lashgarara et al. (2011) concluded that there is a positive relationship between education in high levels and entrepreneurship activities development . Farajolah Hosseini and Mcelwee (2011) in their research found that 67 percent of variance of rural women about the influencing factors on entrepreneurship activates are explained by education, motivation, economic factors and psychological factors . In a research that has been done by Ghonchi et al (2010) the economical, technical and technology individual, professional and infrastructure has been considered as the most important avoiding factors for development of greenhouse units . Sharifi et al (2009) in their paper express that the attitude of the most greenhouse holders toward development and spread of greenhouse is in intermediate and good level and on the other hand there is a positive and significant relationship between communicative channels, performance level, technical knowledge level, net income, green house background, education . Morad nejadi et al (2007) concluded that the economic environment is the most important factor for entrepreneurship in Iran and after them the entrepreneur’s psychological attributes, marketing skills and access to resources, environmental dynamic, and interest toward agriculture are known as other main factors . The town has high problems including inefficiency of major infrastructure like water, electricity and gas, bank lending problems, lack of education, input financing problems like fuel, water price calculation based on industry and not agriculture and some other problems that preclude suitable using from town advantages. Therefore perhaps we can claim that the town could not achieve to one the most important aim toward creating jobs for unemployed graduates of agriculture. Due to cited items the greenhouse cultivation is considered as a novel phenomenon that has not been in Iran for a long time. Despite quantitative growth of greenhouse units in the country, this productive units deal with some multiple problems that make their qualitative development difficult. The current research is aimed to explore the influencing factors on entrepreneurship development of Hashtgerd greenhouse town in order to provide some approaches for entrepreneurship development in this town. The current research is done for Hastgerd greenhouse town located in Savejbolagh in Alborz province. The duration of research is 2011 -2012.
Farhad Lashgarara *, Sahar Aryana
Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.
This is applied study; from the data collection is the descriptive and based on method is correlation. The statistical population in this research includes 39 users of greenhouse town of Hashtgerd. Due to smallness of statistical population and less numbers of users the census method has been used. The instrument used in this study to gather data was the questionnaire. Due to the nature and objectives of this research study is to evaluate the content validity of the questionnaire, to measure the validity questionnaire, the number of Islamic Azad University professors and experts were conducted to examine the necessary and the collection of comments reform of the questionnaire was obtained. In order to determine the reliability of the data collected through questionnaires, Cronbach's alpha test was used for overall Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was between 0.914 to 0.972. Independent variables included psychological, economic, and technical support- social- cultural, educational and policy. The dependent variable in this research is the development of entrepreneurial farmers in Hashtgerd Town greenhouse. In order to measure the dependent variable in the form of a Likert questionnaire item 5 is used. In this study, data were collected in two ways: a library research and field studies. After collecting and sorting data, the analysis the data in two stages, using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were taken. All data processing and statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS18.
Considering the results obtained in this study, the average age is 31.89 years. Most beneficiaries that is 38.5 percent have a bachelor's degree. Average exploiters of record service have 6.74 years. 43.6% of farmers produce strawberries product that has accounted for the highest percentage. In order to evaluate the development of entrepreneurship in the town of greenhouse Hashtgerd the form of a five-item Likert 5 option is used. The findings of the study indicate that the majority of the subjects (41 percent) believe entrepreneurship development in the Town of greenhouse Hashtgerd is too much (Table 1). Table 1. Rate of entrepreneurship development of Hashtgerd greenhouse (n=39) Influence
Very little Little Moderate Much Very much Total
2 4 12 16 5 39
5.1 10.3 30.8 41 12.8 100
Cumulative percent 9.3 45.2 88.3 100 -
Mode & Median: Much
Prioritization of the items shows that the most and least important factors in the development of entrepreneurship is creating employment, and the continuation of settlement activities in Hashtgerd greenhouse town. The findings of the study indicate that the majority of the subjects (76.9 percent) believe that the impact of individual factors on entrepreneurship development in towns greenhouse Hashtgerd is medium and much. The majority of the respondents (69.2 percent), believe that the impact of psychological factors on the development of entrepreneurship in the Hashtgerd town of greenhouse is too much. According to the majority of the subjects (64.1%), the effect of economic factors in the development of entrepreneurship in the greenhouse town of Hashtgerd is considered too much. The majority of the subjects (53.8 percent), believe that the influence of technical factors and supporting from development of entrepreneurship in the town of greenhouse Hashtgerd is too much. The majority of the subjects (51.3 percent), believe that the impact of training on entrepreneurship development in the greenhouse Town of Hashtgerd is too much. The majority of the subjects (43.6 percent) believe that the influence of social factors - cultural entrepreneurship development in the Hashtgerd greenhouse Town is too much. The majority of the subjects (79.5 percent) believe that making policy factors in the development of entrepreneurship in the Hashtgerd greenhouse town is too much. To identify factors that explain the development of entrepreneurship in Greenhouse Town, the multiple regression analysis was used. The first and indeed only the variable in the equation were economic factors (X1). It means that economic factor alone explains the 41.3 % variance the development of entrepreneurial farmers in Hashtgerd greenhouse Town (Table 2). Table 2. Standardized and unstandardized coefficients of improving entrepreneurship development Variables
Standardized coefficients -
Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.Error 0.758 0.81
Adj R square= 0.413
Results of stepwise regression showed that in explanation of the development of entrepreneurial farmers Hashtgerd greenhouse Town, the economic factor has the greatest impact. Farajollah Hosseini (2011) research based on the studying the one of the influential factors in entrepreneurship activities consider the economic factor. A major priority that when planning the development of entrepreneurship and other activities based on economic factors Hashtgerd greenhouse Town are recommended are the use of economic incentives, reducing price volatility and greenhouse equipment prices. Therefore, given the significant role of economic operators, operators, planners, city managers and those involved in programs related to Hashtgerd greenhouse Town to be more interested and spend much time and more resources to the subject.
The Influencing Factors on Entrepreneurship Development of Users in Greenhouse Town of Hashtgerd Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.
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