The New Silk Road - The Washington Institute

Her foreign policy portfolio includes defense planning; Chinese military strategy and the militarization of its energy security policy; regional security architecture ...
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The New Silk Road China’s Energy Strategy in the Greater Middle East Christina Lin Policy Focus #109  |  April 2011

The New Silk Road China’s Energy Strategy in the Greater Middle East Christina Lin Policy Focus #109  |  April 2011

All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. © 2011 by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy Published in 2011 in the United States of America by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1828 L Street NW, Suite 1050, Washington, DC 20036. Design by Daniel Kohan, Sensical Design and Communication Front cover: China’s Great Armada, oil, Zhang HongNian. The Ming Dynasty’s Admiral Zheng He and his giant nine-masted treasure ships made seven voyages around the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and Africa, trading and collecting tribute for the Dragon Throne. The Chinese navy would not sail again to the Middle East for another 600 years, until April 2010. CREDITS Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Claude Comtois, and Brian Slack, The Geography of Transport Systems (New York: Routledge, 2009) Juli MacDonald, Amy Donahue, and Bethany Danyluk, Energy Futures in Asia (Booz Allen Hamilton report sponsored by the Office of Net Assessment, November 2004) “Syria-Iraq Plan Gas Pipeline Construction,” Business Monitor International, January 2009 “EU-Turkey Agree on Arab Gas Pipeline Cooperation,” MEMRI Economic Blog, May 6, 2008 Stuart Burns, “Don’t Shed a Tear for China’s Steel Pipe Producers,” AGMetalMiner.com, March 23, 2010 Ariel Cohen, Lisa Curtis, and Owen Graham, “The Proposed Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline: An Unacceptable Risk to Regional Security,” Backgrounder no. 2139 (Heritage Foundation, May 30, 2008) CIA World Factbook U.S. Energy Information Administration

Contents About the Author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Executive Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 1 | China’s Strategic Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 | An Increasing Footprint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 | The Four Seas Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4 | Policy Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Illustrations Fig. 1 | China’s Silk Road Strategy and String of Pearls (map). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fig. 2 | China’s Energy Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fig. 3 | Trans-Asian Railway (map). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Tables Table 1 | Chinese National Energy Commission Members, January 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

About the Author Christina Lin is a former visiting fellow at The Washington Institute, focusing on China’s increasing footprint in

the Middle East and cooperative efforts by China, the United States, and U.S. allies to resolve regional security issues. She ha