Understanding Psychosis and Schizophrenia - British Psychological ...

degree, for example at times of stress, whereas for others they are more intense, enduring and/or distressing. Although ...... or biological and adoptive relatives of people who have been given a diagnosis of schizophrenia. ...... safe place where you can find out more about hearing voices and to create an interactive online.
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Understanding Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Printed and published by the British Psychological Society. © The British Psychological Society 2014 The British Psychological Society St Andrews House, 48 Princess Road East, Leicester LE1 7DR, UK Telephone 0116 254 9568 Facsimile 0116 247 0787 E-mail [email protected] Website www.bps.org.uk Incorporated by Royal Charter Registered Charity No 229642

Understanding Psychosis and Schizophrenia Why people sometimes hear voices, believe things that others find strange, or appear out of touch with reality, and what can help

ISBN 978-1-85433-728-3

9 781854 337283 REP03/11.2014

Edited by Anne Cooke A report by the Division of Clinical Psychology

Editor: Anne Cooke Art by: Anita Klein (www.anitaklein.com) Many thanks to Anita for kindly allowing us to use her beautiful paintings free of charge. Contributors:* Thurstine Basset Professor Richard Bentall Professor Mary Boyle Anne Cooke (co-ordinating editor) Caroline Cupitt Jacqui Dillon Professor Daniel Freeman Professor Philippa Garety Dr David Harper Dr Lucy Johnstone Professor Peter Kinderman Professor Elizabeth Kuipers Professor Tony Lavender

Laura Lea Dr Eleanor Longden Dr Rufus May Professor Tony Morrison Dr Sara Meddings Professor Steve Onyett Dr Emmanuelle Peters Professor David Pilgrim Professor John Read Professor Mike Slade Yan Weaver Professor Til Wykes

Acknowledgements We are very grateful to • Canterbury Christ Church University for supporting Anne Cooke to undertake this project; • Dr Catherine Dooley, Dr Stephen Weatherhead and the Professional Standards Unit of the Division for commissioning and supporting this report; • Dr Stuart Whomsley and the Psychosis and Complex Mental Health Faculty of the Division for helpful comments and support; • Sophie Chatfield and Sarah Phillips for their skilled and enthusiastic help with research and referencing; • Bruce Bassam for help and support over the course of this project; • Helen and Nigel Cooke for helpful comments on making our language clear and accessible; • Professor Peter Kinderman for his extensive help and support with the editing process. Contributors to the first report* This report draws on and updates an earlier one, Recent Advances in Understanding Mental Illness and Psychotic Experiences, which was published in 2000. Professor Richard Bentall Professor Mary Boyle Professor Paul Chadwick Anne Cooke (co-ordinating editor) Professor Philippa Garety Dr Simon Gelsthorpe Dr Anne Goodwin Dr David Harper Dr Lucy Johnstone Professor Peter Kinderman (co-ordinating editor)

Professor Tony Lavender Dr Rufus May Professor Elizabeth Kuipers Dr Steve Onyett Dr Emmanuelle Peters Professor David Pilgrim Professor Mike Slade Professor Til Wykes

* Listed in alphabetical order. Contributor details are given at the end of the report.

An individual having unusual difficulties in coping with his environment struggles and kicks up the dust, as it were. I have used the figure of a fish caught on a hook: his gyrations must look peculiar to other fish that don’t understand the circumstances; but his splashes are not his affliction, they are his effort to get rid of his affliction and as every fisherman knows these efforts may succeed. Karl Menninger

This publication has been produced by the British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology and represents the views and expert contributions of the members of that Division only. If you have problems reading this document and would like it in a different format, please contact us with your specific requirements. Tel: 0116 252 9523; E-mail: [email protected]

Contents Page Foreword

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Executive Summary

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Note on Terminology

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Part 1: What is ‘psychosis’? Section 1: What this report is about: experiences sometimes called psychosis

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1.1

What does it mean to exper