Whitepaper - guardium

Dec 13, 2017 - decentralized and protocol-based enables the creation of a unified decentralized network that evolves and updates through its .... Emergency resources may have a long distance to travel, especially ..... or a large professional response company (i.e., Rapid Response, Affiliated Monitoring, a private armed.
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Guardium: Providing a Decentralized Worldwide Public Emergency Response Utility Draft 1.01 Mark Jeffrey [email protected] December 13, 2017 Abstract Physical safety and security is essential for everyone—yet four billion people have no access to on-call emergency services such as 911 in the United States. This paper calls for the formation of a decentralized emergency response grid that would be more widely accessible, faster, proximal, scalable, user-friendly and technically advanced than any existing network. Like the creation of ride-sharing services like Uber, Smartphone ubiquity is a precondition for the establishment of such a global network. But the emergence of protocol-based decentralized organizations, distributed ledgers, cryptographic currencies fundamentally shift the economics of providing such a global service. Services like Filecoin and CIVIC have demonstrated that a new class of Global Public Utility provider that is decentralized and protocol-based enables the creation of a unified decentralized network that evolves and updates through its governance framework. Distributed ledger technology can provide an immutable record of responses to emergencies for auditability, accountability and trust. Finally the availability of cryptographic tokens and smart contracts enables a framework for establishing protective relationships, compensating responders and rewarding positive behavior within the network. No government is capable of providing a global network, yet the economic benefit of having a single, final, global provider is evident when considering the user experience of multiple competing networks during an emergency situation. DISCLAIMER: This draft GUARDIUM Technical Whitepaper is for information purposes only. Guardian Circle, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the conclusions reached in this paper, and the whitepaper is provided “as is” with no representations and warranties, express or implied, whatsoever, including, but not limited to: (i) warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title or noninfringement; (ii) that the contents of this whitepaper are free from error or suitable for any purpose; and (iii) that such contents will not infringe third-party rights. All warranties are expressly disclaimed. Guardian Circle, Inc. and its affiliates expressly disclaim all liability for and damages of any kind arising out of the use, reference to, or reliance on any information contained in this whitepaper, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. In no event will Guardian Circle, Inc. or its affiliates be liable to any person or entity for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages for the use of, reference to, or reliance on this whitepaper or any of the content contained herein.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Problem Solution Organization Reference Implementation 4.1 Protocol 4.2 Progress To Date 4.3 How Does It Work? Hardware Support For API Platform Distributed Response The Guardium Token Paid Guardian Marketplace 8.1 Guardium Response Contracts Response ‘At A Distance’ Alert Room Transcript Preservation 10.1 Alert Room Transcript Custody and Viewing Permission Geofenced Response Guardium For Corporations, Governments and Institutions Guardium Beyond Guardian Circle 13.1 Guardium Is Built For A Working, Deployed App 13.2 Guardium Is Social Good Why Are We Doing The Guardium Token Launch? Technology of the Guardium Token and Blockchain 15.1 Background 15.2 Introduction 15.3 Algorithm 15.4 Speed 15.5 Mining 15.6 Security 15.7 Distribution Investors and Advisors Team Conclusion

1 Problem Less than half of the world has 9-1-1, a government centralized emergency response system. Invented in 1968 for a world of landlines, it has not advanced significantly1. Emergency services, particularly in remote areas suffer from these problems:

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Antiquated: 9-1-1 operators do not know your location 90% of the time if you call from a mobile device. (See 9-1-1’s Deadly Flaw in USA Today2). Congested: In March 2017, 9-1-1 was completely unavailable nationwide3 on AT&T mobile. In that same month, a child died 4 because a caregiver was put on 9-1-1 hold for half an hour. ○ Here is an blog post5 with more details. Expensive: In Africa, the largest employer on the continent now is private security. The rich can pay for safety ... but the poor can't pay for it and they're left unprotected. Guardium can put security within reach of the poor for the first time. Corruption: In India, it is common for victims of sexual assault to be assaulted yet again by the very police they call to for help. The solution is clearly not ‘more police’. Lawlessness: In his 2015 TED Talk6, Gary Haughan argues that the number one cause of poverty worldwide is not a lack of food or water, but lawlessness, which is a direct consequence there being no adequate protection grid. He demonstrates this with the example of a 12-year-old girl named Griselda: “... perhaps the most powerful thing that Griselda and her family can do to get Griselda and her family out of poverty is to make sure that she goes to school. The experts call this the Girl Effect. But when we met Griselda, she wasn't going to school. In fact, she was rarely ever leaving her home. Days before we met her, while she was walking home from church with her family, in broad daylight, men … just snatched her off the street, and violently raped her. See, Griselda had every opportunity to go to school, it just wasn't safe for her to get there … Around the world …. victims of the everyday violence of domestic abuse and sexual violence ... account for more death and disability than malaria, than car accidents, than war combined. The truth is, the poor of our world are trapped in whole systems of violence.”

Problems of Centralization 1) Proximity of help: Emergency services are dispatched through a central switchboard, and local resources are routed to the scene of the emergency. Emergency resources may have a long distance to travel, especially for people in remote areas. In many emergencies including sudden medical crisis or violent crime, this is an unacceptable time delay.

John Oliver, Last Week Tonight: “9-1-1 Sucks” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-XlyB_QQYs https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/02/22/cellphone-911-lack-location-data/23570499/ 3 http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/nation-now/2017/03/08/agencies-reporting-911-outage-emergencycalls/98936968/ 4 http://foxsanantonio.com/news/local/baby-dies-after-babysitters-calls-to-911-put-on-hold-several-times 5 http://safety.xprize.org/news/9-1-1-was-created-1968-its-time-upgrade 6 https://www.ted.com/talks/gary_haugen_the_hidden_reason_for_poverty_the_world_needs_to_address_now 1

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2) Location of Emergency: Emergency responders need a detailed explanation of the location of the emergency, in many cases this location is not automatically available through the device GPS when calling a traditional 9-1-1 service 3) Scalability: Centralization reduces scalability. In disasters such as recent hurricanes Irma and Harvey, emergency response was swamped with calls and those calling would often be faced with a busy signal. During hurricane Irma, CNN announced that 9-1-1 calls would simply go unanswered in Florida for the duration of the storm. The inherent centralization of current emergency response limits scalability. 4) Distribution: Four billion people on earth have no access to 9-1-1 services. 5) Knowledge of responder: In many cases, first responders are entering into situations where their knowledge may be extremely limited. This may limit their ability to provide appropriate care. 6) User Interface: Typically emergency response is handled through a 9-1-1 phone call. In cases where the person cannot speak (for example if they are having a stroke), they will be unable to summon help. For those conditions where the person in crisis has foreknowledge of a possible problem (a person on a heart pacemaker, or someone with life threatening allergies, etc), creating a “panic button” that doesn’t require a detailed phone conversation can be a life saver. Worse yet is the condition of the four billion people on earth who have no access at all to 9-1-1 emergency services. The widespread availability of smartphones provides a precondition for solving this problem, and the emergence of ride-sharing services like Uber provide a model of user interaction where distributed providers and consumers can interact and create a multi-sided marketplace for transportation. But the provision of worldwide emergency services is not only beyond the scope of any individual government, but also beyond the scope of a traditional corporation like an Uber. An inherent part of the problem is the creation of a new organizational system for delivering protocol-based decentralized marketplaces. 2. Solution This problem requires both a new class of Global Public Utility and a new class of Protocol-Based Decentralized Organization to govern, facilitate and update this service. Protocol Draft specification of the protocol is under development. The protocol governs the following areas: 1) Identity: How users and providers identify themselves consistently and reliably on the network. This protocol will need to offer a form of secure identity to prevent spoofing, as trust in the network depends on stable identities with reputation. 2) Reputation: How entities in the network establish reputation including response 3) Logging, Auditing and Incident reporting: how incidents are reported in an immutable distributed ledger, and how responses to incidents and outcomes are also reported 4) Compensation: whether established as part of a pre-ordained smart contract or post-facto arrangement, the process of compensation will likely require some form of adjudication, ideally decentralized. 5) Alerting: Based on an emergency call, the protocol will have to determine which possible respondents are alerted based on trust, skills needed, pre-established relationships, user preferences, proximity and a variety of other factors. 6) Contracts: Establishment of smart contracts for security 7) Liability: The network will have to present regional variations in order to handle variability in the legal exposure to respondents and to protect the network itself. 8) Hardware API: Interfaces for many different devices that can serve as interfaces to the network.

Reference Implementation Problems of User Interface, Location and Responder Knowledge can potentially be solved by today’s smartphone applications, indeed Guardian Circle employs smartphone technology to solve these problems. It’s easy to imagine a service like Uber where anyone can come to your aid simply at the press of a button. Guardian Circle decentralizes response. It enables people to protect one another with peer-to-peer 9-1-1 services through their mobile phones. Mobile devices can be used to instantly alert and organize multiple nearby citizen and professional responders into a ‘flash mob of help’. Guardium is a blockchain based token used to compensate protection and emergency response worldwide. It is used to power the Guardian Circle alert response intelligence grid. Guardium blockchain based smart contracts can serve as pre-established security agreements that can accelerate or facilitate trusted emergency response. Utility Tokens will have the greatest impact where people are unbanked. These are also the same places that have limited or no emergency services. Both technologies are required to make the people who live in these regions of the world safer. Trust Any solution seeking to decentralize the delivery of emergency services must solve the much larger problem of trust. Despite the wide availability of potentially helpful, proximal and available responders, the responses of those individuals may be ineffective or in the worst case malicious. Enter blockchain technologies. The blockchain can be used to solve problems like identifying and compensating reputable providers of emergency service. By providing an immutable, consensus-based distributed ledger, the individual responses to emergencies can be recorded, audited and aggregated, and trust can be developed in the network. Bad actors and free riders can be identified and blocked from the network. Smart contracts can enable decentralized parties to enter into pre-established agreements which further increase the trust in the network. 3. Organization Foundation: This paper proposes the formation of a Guardium Foundation whose mission and function will be the establishment of a singular, global and final decentralized emergency response grid. The foundation will maintain and define the protocol for emergency response as well as the governance structure for updating the protocol and network. The foundation will provide for the allocation of tokens to the network to maximize mission objectives. For the time being, and for purposes of speed of execution, this Foundation will be initially domiciled in Belize. Corporation: Guardian Circle, Inc. will provide the reference implementation and develop the necessary mobile applications and infrastructure needed to implement the protocol and deploy the network. The corporation will also be responsible for establishing distribution partnerships to ensure access to this network for hundreds of millions of people. The corporation will also be responsible for technology R&D such as the development of “panic button” hardware for people without smartphones or the dexterity to use them during an emergency.

Providers: Security providers are largely decentralized, however, professional responders and trained organizations may enter into agreements with Guardian Circle or with the Foundation to provide services into the network. Consumers: Consumers of security services are decentralized and can join the network by downloading the client reference implementation or through use of a hardware device.

4. Reference Implementation Guardian Circle, Inc. has already developed and deployed a reference implementation of the network. The current version is free for all users and for emergency responders. The next step in the roadmap will be to implement the use of Guardium tokens for enabling the formation of emergency service marketplaces. The user experience is that you simply push a button, and nearby help comes. It scales from minor to major emergencies, scales from peer-to-peer to professional response, and has an open API that connects to a wide range of IoT devices.

4.1 Progress To Date ● App Released: Available now worldwide on iOS, Android and Alexa. ● Alexa Skill (voice app) released: “Alexa! Tell Guardian Circle I have an emergency!” ● Winner: LAUNCH Festival (World's Largest Startup Conference, Silicon Valley) ● Featured on PLANET OF THE APPS. Apple's 'Shark Tank' reality TV show. Judges: Jessica Alba, Gwyneth Paltrow, will.i.am, Gary Vaynerchuck ● Partnerships: We have formed partnerships with international organizations that we are targeting to yield distribution to 50M users in the developing world in 2018. We target this this number to grow to 400M by 2022. ● Open API Complete: This allows hundreds of IoT devices (panic button rings, fall detection, voice devices, irregular heartbeat detection) to be easily paired with any Guardian Circle account.

4.2 User Experience ● Become Guardians with your friends, family and neighbors in the app. ● Optionally select Paid Guardians to subscribe to as well. ● You hit an ALERT button: your Guardians are instantly notified. ● When they click through, they appear on a map and a chatroom. You can think of this as 'SnapMaps for emergencies'.

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In under 30 seconds, everyone knows where everyone else is. And everyone can communicate. So now they can come up with a plan to help you fast. Guardians are not required to know each other ahead of time. There are optional paid semi-pro and professional Guardian responders: off-duty EMT's, security guards, ‘guardian angel’ groups and paid concierge Alert operators (more on this below).

Today’s 9-1-1 response (where available) looks like this:

By contrast, Guardian Circle response looks like this:

5. Hardware Support for API Platform Guardian Circle has created an Open API that allows anyone to pair their hardware or application with a specific Guardian Circle account, and thus generate Alerts programmatically. As a result, there will soon be many new ways to create an Alert: ● Panic Button Jewelry (Ring, Necklace, Wristband, Watch, Keychain) ● Cellular Data IoT Panic Button (no bluetooth or phone proximity required) ● In-home Voice (Amazon Alexa, Google Home, Apple Homepod) ● In-car Voice (OnStar, Alexa) ● Passive Alert Generation: Fall detection, irregular heartbeat detection, breaking a geofence (grandpa wanders off), failure to answer a safety inquiry.

6. Distributed Response Instead of simply alerting a single, remote 9-1-1 call center, Guardian Circle sends alerts to multiple parties, especially ones who are geographically nearby. In under 30 seconds, everyone knows where everyone else is and can communicate - without requiring them to know each other in advance. The idea is to produce a distributed response: pull all help to the Alerter as quickly as possible. Help includes friends, family and neighbors. It may also include off-duty EMT’s and security guards as well as professional responders such as police, fire, rescue and medical. With a wide variety of hardware ‘panic buttons’, more help can arrive faster for any urgent situation, large or small, anywhere in the world.

7. The Guardium Token The following describes how the system we envision may work, and it is our intent to build such a system. However, it should be understood that this entire concept is experimental. We may discover that it is better implemented in different ways than stated below or takes longer to build than we think. We may even discover that is it impossible to implement such a system effectively or sustainably. Or we may decide it is prudent to focus on building only a small portion of what follows, especially in early months and years. In all cases, it should be fully understood that the implementation details described below will very likely change as we iterate and learn. Guardian Circle will have a free tier and a paid tier. The free tier is available worldwide right now. You can have an unlimited number of Guardians and generate an unlimited number of Alerts. This basic service will always be free. For the four billion people with no 9-1-1, this alone is extremely valuable. But in order for ‘help to always be nearby’, we need to achieve a sufficient density of available roving help worldwide. This is only realistic if we create a paid tier of trusted guardians. To make this work in the unbanked developing world we need a settlement system that transcends borders and does not rely on the traditional banking system. Guardian Circle intends to introduce the Guardium Token which will be used as a form of settlement between participants in response-related transactions within the ecosystem. Guardium also doubles as the loyalty and rewards system within Guardian Circle, to incentivize all participants to contribute to the ecosystem. You may be able to earn Guardium through performing actions which benefit the ecosystem such as: ● Sending a Guardian Invite ● Accepting a Guardian Request ● Answering an Alert from someone you Guard ● Continuing to Guard someone each month ● Bringing someone new into the ecosystem ● Purchasing Guardium in-app You may be able to spend or gift Guardium on: ● Paying for Paid Guardians (EMT’s, security guards, etc.) ● Paying for Concierge Alert Operator Monitoring ● Gifting either of the above to someone (for example, buy protection for your parents) ● Rewarding someone who responded exceedingly well to your Alert ● Rewarding children for responding to Safety / Location Monitoring Check-In Requests (Parents can set a fixed amount of Guardium to be given to their children for being safety conscious). ● Sending Guardium directly to someone in the Network ● Redeeming for cash by selling Guardium in-app This provides a powerful incentive to become a Paid Guardian and to recruit new participants into the ecosystem. This increases the value of Guardium while making the entire Guardian Circle protection grid more robust. 8. Paid Guardian Marketplace - Earn Guardium It is intended that there will be a market users can browse for Paid Guardians who service their geographic area. Each market listing may provide: ● Specific skills offered by the Guardian (EMT, security response, concierge 9-1-1, other skills)

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Hours they are ‘on duty’ Geographic area they service Starred ratings and comments from past and current subscribers. Monthly rate charged in Guardium

Each listing may describe: ● an individual ● a ‘pooled’ group of individuals (‘Guardian Angels’, neighborhood watch, good Samaritans) ● or a large professional response company (i.e., Rapid Response, Affiliated Monitoring, a private armed response company, others). From this list, users may purchase Paid Guardianship subscriptions. In this way, users build a ‘portfolio of protection’ -- aka, a Guardian Circle. Guardian Circle will take a small percentage of the Guardium transacted for these subscriptions to support the network. 8.1 Guardium Response Contracts When you subscribe to a Paid Guardian, this subscription represents a smart contract between the guardee and Paid Guardian. A contract may state that, in return for your Guardium every month, the Paid Guardian must respond within sixty seconds to any Alert generated by the guardee. Should the Guardian fail to answer within sixty seconds, the Guardium acquired over the past three months on that account may be forfeit and returned to the subscriber. In some cases, any contracts the Paid Guardian has to guard others may also be put on hold. However, if the Guardian was already engaged in responding to a simultaneous Alert at the time, they will not be so penalized. Paid Guardian prices are imagined to be widely varied worldwide, and in some cases, possibly very low -- even just pennies a month. The Guardium Utility Token makes this regionally-based sliding scale possible. Some Paid Guardians might not operate ‘for profit’. Some may be organizations who charge just enough to cover expenses of roving ‘Good Samaritan’ volunteers. Use of Guardium will subsidize the ongoing availability of the free tier for the entire world. When you protect yourself and your loved ones, you are also helping to protect the world. 9. Paid Guardians - Response ‘At A Distance’ Some Paid Guardians may offer services that are ‘remote only’: in other words, they act as concierge Alert Operators. They push help to you from a distance. Even just this kind of help can be extremely valuable. A large network of Paid Guardians providing ‘response at a distance’ can alleviate 9-1-1’s increasing congestion of overwhelmed centralized call centers and busy signals of the type currently experienced with traditional emergency response. In addition: ● Paid Guardian Alert Operators can immediately know your location. ● Paid Guardian Alert Operators can direct dial the correct police, fire, rescue or ambulance relevant to your current location. ● If you are in a different country where you don’t speak the language, an Alert Operator can communicate with official responders on your behalf.



Alert Operators can talk in your Alert Room with your other Guardians - friends, family, and neighbors -people who may know valuable information pertinent to the emergency (allergies, location of keys, drug use history).

10. Alert Room Transcript Preservation Historically, 9-1-1 calls have been recorded and transcribed. In some cases, they can become legal evidence. Therefore, it is important that any such transcripts are accurate, immutable and provably free from later tampering. Furthermore, custody of such information should be controlled jointly by several parties: the Alerter, law enforcement and any Responders. Confidence in the accuracy of evidence gathered during an emergency situation needs to be absolute. Even with the body-cams now worn by police, accusations of subsequent evidence-tampering by law enforcement are all too frequent. AXON Evidence.com (a company that grew out of TASER, Inc.) has made a $1.3B business out of providing a centralized version of this capability. 7 Especially in the developing world, where corruption is pervasive, it is important to protect evidence from tampering by law enforcement itself. Fortunately, blockchains are particularly good at preserving information in a distributed, tamper-proof manner. As such, Guardian Circle can inscribe a log of all Alert Room conversations on the Guardium block chain. This log can also contain a timestamp of when the Alert was generated, the location information of the Alerter (as well as Responders), and at what point Responders entered or left the Alert Room, and when the Alert ended. Each field described above can be placed into a Merkle Tree, where each node contains the field, a timestamp, and a hash of both. Each event in the Alert Room would generate a new node in the Tree. This might be a new line of chat, a location update, etc. A hash of all the hashes then can be used to produce a Merkle Root, by which it is provable that the sequence of events described really did happen in the order and at the times indicated.

10.1 Alert Room Transcript Custody and Viewing Permission Traditionally, only official services have controlled custody and access to 9-1-1 recordings, body-cam and dash-cam information. Because Guardium powers a similar service as a distributed global public utility, it can make new decisions as to the custody and access to Alert Room information gathered. Custody can be shared between the Alerter, responding Guardians, and official services. No one party can deny access to another, and all parties can be certain the information has not been altered. The Alerter, Responders and law enforcement are all issued separate private keys. These keys provide varying levels of access and control. The Alerter has the master control for the custody of transcript information, and can assign or rescind permission for the other parties. As Guardian Circle continues to add features, we imagine that a video recording from the Alerter’s mobile device can be just another element added to the Alert Room Transcript. This video file can be inscribed on the Guardium block chain, with a timestamp, and a hash of both. This can be inserted into the Merkle Tree built for the Alert Transcript.

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https://www.fool.com/investing/2017/06/05/axon-enterprise-incs-growth-potential-is-enormous.aspx

11. Geofenced Response: Guardium On The Road As you change location, your protection profile also changes. If you are traveling, your free tier Guardian Circle of friends, family and neighbors is likely not nearby. In this situation, you may choose to temporarily augment your safety with regional protection. When you arrive within a particular geofence, individuals and organizations can make their ‘roaming’ Guardian services available to you. You can choose to accept or not. While you remain within their geofence, you may be charged daily Guardium for their ongoing protection. In this way, location-based temporary Paid Guardianship is made available. When you leave the geofence, the temporary Guardianship terminates. If you re-enter the geofence, it automatically re-activates for the duration of your stay: you don’t have to think about it again. The use of a Utility Token (Guardium) allows the settlement mechanism to be borderless and free of local banking and currencyswapping inefficiencies. This creates an efficient, trusted and seamless experience for both travelers and Paid Guardians. 12. Guardium For Corporations, Governments and Institutions Geofenced protection is a perfect way for organizations to offer enhanced security when they detect Guardian Circle users on organization property. Examples of this might be: ● Hotels / Resorts ● Amusement Parks ● Corporate Campuses ● Universities ● Municipalities Although Guardian Circle is free for peer-to-peer protection, corporate / government / institution usage of the Guardian Circle intelligence grid will cost these entities some amount of Guardium. This cost will cover the ongoing operation and availability of the Guardian Circle alert and intelligence grid.

The user can always see which people and organizations and brands are guarding them at any time. Below is a mockup of how this might appear in the app (this is an example only):

13. Guardium Beyond Guardian Circle It is intended than an API may be made available for Guardium. This will allow Guardianship Contracts to be created and compensated for outside of the Guardian Circle infrastructure. For example: a private security firm that presently provides armed response whenever a phone number is dialed could now also establish their service subscription contract electronically with Guardium. The API would allow the firm to validate that the incoming phone number is currently a subscriber to the service, and, in turn, that the private security firm actually provided a response when an Alert was created. The Guardium would then be automatically deducted from the subscriber’s wallet on either a subscription or per-incident basis, depending on the terms of the contract. The private security firm could also opt to combine this with the Guardian Circle private alert and response intelligence grid API to provide a better ‘smart dispatch’ for their responders.

13.1 Guardium Is Built For A Working, Deployed App Unlike many Tokens that are tied to infrastructure which may or may not be important in the future, Guardium is meant for Guardian Circle’s specific application. You can download and use Guardian Circle today worldwide on iOS, Android and Alexa. We believe in the near future, tokens will be increasingly valued for the practical, tangible applications built on top of them. Guardium (like Civic and Steem) is one such useful Utility Token. 13.2 Guardium Is Social Good We are building a sustainable, new global public utility for worldwide safety. Smartphones and tokens make this possible only now. It can be done in a way that is economically sound and makes the world a better place at the same time. 14. Why Are We Doing The Guardium Token Sale? It is intended that funds raised from the Guardium Token Sale will be applied primarily to the following efforts: ● Establish the Guardium Foundation ● Build the market and infrastructure to enable Paid Guardians worldwide. ● Build the API for Guardium. ● Build new tools for Guardians to respond ‘at a distance’. ● Continue to improve the core Guardian Circle apps ● Continue to connect myriad IoT alert devices to the Guardian Circle Open API

15. Technology of the Guardium Token and Blockchain 15.1 Background There is still considerable technical volatility with existing popular cryptocurrencies. For example, the Ethereum network has already experienced massive congestion. CryptoKitties is only the most recent example. CIVIC had to delay their ICO for a full day because transactions generated by the Status ICO of the previous day were taking longer than eight hours to clear. As the number of ERC20 Tokens and ICO’s on Ethereum increases geometrically, it even appears possible that the Ethereum network may become clogged to the point of being unusable in the near future. ERC20 Tokens also carry a risk of gas prices rising astronomically as the price of Ethereum goes up, making it uneconomical to perform transactions (especially in the developing world). The Bitcoin community recently experienced a significant technical squabble that resulted in the fork of Bitcoin into Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. There is already talk of yet another fork in the near future. Although the implementation of Segregated Witness has for the moment eased Bitcoin’s scaling issues, this is merely a stopgap measure that has deferred a permanent solution to a future date. There is no agreement on this permanent solution and many sides are arguing vociferously over it to this day. Because Guardium is used for emergency response, we cannot accept technical volatility. The stakes in our world are potentially life and death. Guardium simply cannot risk being adversely affected by hard forks, transaction congestion, technical scaling squabbles, surges in transaction fees or other risks. Therefore, Guardium cannot make use of existing blockchains or currencies. The only way to be absolutely certain of providing reliable, affordable and fast settlement within our ecosystem is to create a completely standalone, independent Guardium token and blockchain. 15.2 Introduction Guardium is a peer-to-peer Internet utility token utilizing an open ledger known as blockchain technology. In the form of a crypto token this technology enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Guardium is a global payment network that relies on solving complex mathematics to secure the network and the transactions made within. This procedure of solving complex mathematics is known as mining. Guardium is a combination of well-known existing crypto technologies. Several parts of Bitcoin, Litecoin, Feathercoin, and Peercoin, are integrated to form Guardium. When compared to these other crypto technologies, Guardium features faster transaction confirmation times, improved storage efficiency, and enhanced security. A total of 100 million Guardium tokens in total supply have been produced during the creation of the blockchain. No other coins will ever be created and the block reward for mining is set to zero. With an existing platform, industry support, trade volume, and liquidity, Guardium will be a proven medium of commerce within its closed loop of users that is technologically compatible and complementary to Bitcoin and alternative cryptocurrencies. 15.3 Algorithm Guardium utilizes Scrypt as its proof-of-work algorithm. A proof-of-work algorithm creates a computational challenge to be solved by the network of computers in order to "certify" a "block" of transactions. Scrypt was developed in 2009 by Colin Percival of Tarsnap, Inc. and has been successfully used in many altcoins starting with Litecoin and more recently Voxels and eBoost.

15.4 Speed Guardium performs instant transactions and the network processes a continued confirmation time targeted at 2.5 minutes on average. Bitcoin confirms transactions at an average of every 10 minutes on average, and reasonable security measures mean waiting one to two hours is often recommended. Guardium’s faster confirmations provide end-users with faster access to their transactions, especially in time-sensitive situations. 15.5 Mining Guardium requires mining to continue creating blocks to process transactions created on the network. Users on the network have the option to mine Guardium via CPU, GPU, or ASIC devices. Mining allows users to support the network and receive mining fees paid by those sending transactions over the network. Developers of Guardium continue mining the blockchain 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year to ensure the stability of the network by creating new blocks. There is no block reward other than mining fees. 15.6 Security While it would be difficult for a 51% attack to be carried out against a network as large as Bitcoin's, many Altcoins have already suffered from a 51% attack. Guardium has implemented advanced checkpointing (ACP) in its block chain to protect against 51% attacks. The ACP feature will remove the need for changes to client software by publishing a feed of checkpoints, via a central node. Checkpointing is a lesser known part of cryptocurrencies but plays a major role in protecting the blockchain of Guardium. It is a way to maintain the integrity of the blockchain by recording blocks out of it. In Bitcoin, checkpoints are stored in the code of the client. This enables it to verify its checkpoints against the copy of the block chain it has downloaded, ensuring that block chain has not been retroactively rewritten in a 51% attack. This means that as the blockchain grows, Bitcoin client software has to be updated to store new checkpoints within its code. This leaves clients that have not been updated for a long time vulnerable to attacks on the blockchain. ACP technology sought to solve this problem by separating the checkpoint record from the client software. A "master node" is created to publish the series of checkpoints for Guardium clients to check against. ACP technology also protects users of the Guardium network as implementation of this feature means there is zero possibility of the blockchain to be rolled back. No master node or central authority could effectively cheat the network of previous transactions. ACP was originally introduced by the Peercoin team, and was more recently used to protect the blockchains of Feathercoin, Voxels, and eBoost. 15.7 Distribution The Guardium Tokens will be distributed as follows: ● Token Sale: 30% ● Early Contributors and Advisors: 5% ● Technology: 10% ● Marketing & User Adoption: 45% ● Team: 10%

16. Investors and Advisors Corporate Advisors: Eric Pulier Michael Terpin Khaliya Ermacora Heather Mason Mark Pesce Joey Tamer

Corporate Investors: Jason Calacanis Michael Terpin Falkora Eric Pulier John Valenti

Guardium Advisors: Crystal Rose-Pierce Miko Matsumura Richard Titus Fred Krueger William Mougayar Ken Brook Ryan Scott

17. Team The team behind Guardian Circle is extremely experienced. We've delivered multiple exits on multiple products. Several of these products have had tens of millions of users and one had hundreds of millions. We've worked directly with some of the biggest names in the industry and we've been previously backed by Tier One investors. Mark Jeffrey - Co-Founder and CEO, Guardian Circle Inc. Mark Jeffrey is a serial entrepreneur and author. Three times, he has conceptualized and built consumer products that generated millions of registered users in the first year. He has co-founded five internet companies (three exits) and published nine books. Most recently, Mark founded Guardian Circle, an app that lets friends, family and neighbors protect one another (Guardiancircle.com). He is also an early pioneer of crypto-currencies, having published two of the first books on Bitcoin: BITCOIN EXPLAINED SIMPLY (2012) and THE CASE FOR BITCOIN (2015). His previous companies include The Palace (backed by Time Warner, Intel and SoftBank; sold to Communities.com in 1998 with 10 million users), ZeroDegrees (a business social network sold to InterActiveCorp / IAC in 2004 with 1 million users) and ThisWeekIn (co-founded with Kevin Pollak and Jason Calacanis). He was the founding CTO of Mahalo / Inside.com (backed by Elon Musk, Sequoia, Mark Cuban and others). Mark's first book was published in hardcover by HarperCollins in May, 2011. It was initially podcast as a series of episodic mp3's and received over 2.5 million downloads. Mark Jeffrey holds a BS in Computer Science from the University of New Hampshire. He is a TEDx speaker and was a featured speaker at the very first Harvard Conference on the Internet and Society. On Twitter, he is @markjeffrey.

Chris Hayes - Co-Founder and CTO Chris started his career building web apps for the aerospace industry in 1998. He also lays claim to architecting one of the payment industry’s first HRIPSP platforms in 2007 generating over $35,000 daily within two months of launch. Chris lead a team at Davita healthcare (Fortune 200) in web application architecture saving over $1.5M/year. He also lead engineering and architected ThisNext.com’s pivot to Glossi.com He also created The Smoking Tire podcast currently reaching an audience of over 140,000 listeners per week and has seen over 35M downloads to date. Chris also created The Hooniverse podcast currently reaching over 50,000 listeners per week.

Chris founded ShoutEngine.com, the first highly scalable podcast publishing platform with detailed analytics, serving over 2M uniques a month and 4.5M episode downloads/month. He also co-founded of IDK Events, web based event management/planning platform, generating over $4M in first year revenue alone. He serves as an advisor to Gablit.co event search platform, exited via sale to Events.com 2013, as well as Intake.me in Venice CA, and Hello.app in Santa Monica CA. 18. Conclusion We hope you decide to participate in the Guardium economy. Emergencies the world over are handled in a woefully antiquated way. We can do it faster, cheaper, sustainably and more effectively. Participate in Guardium, and you're also helping to build the new emergency intelligence and communications grid for the entire world.

APPENDIX: Guardian Circle Examples / Personas