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PEACE, CONFLICT, AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A READER Political Economy of Conflict Economic Policy and Peace Humanitarian Aid Human Development Demilitarisation Human Security State-Building Democracy Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Recovery Natural Resources Environment Conflict Sensitivity Conflict Prevention Social Mobilisation Youth Gender

Edited by Erin McCandless and Tony Karbo

PEACE, CONFLICT, AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

PEACE, CONFLICT, AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A READER Edited by Erin McCandless and Tony Karbo

Copyright © 2011 University for Peace Printed in Switzerland ISBN: 978-9977-925-58-5

Contents Foreword Contributors Acknowledgements Abbreviations Introduction

CHAPTER 1: PEACE, CONFLICT, AND DEVELOPMENT: THE LINKAGES

vii viii x xi xiii

1

Hansen, Africa: Perspectives on Peace and Development McCandless, Peace and Conflict Studies: Origins, Defining Issues, Current Status McCandless, Emergence of Peace-Building and Development: Scholarship and Practice McCandless, Synopses of Major Concepts Uvin, The Development/Peacebuilding Nexus: A Typology and History of Changing Paradigms Government of Liberia and United Nations Development Programme–Liberia, National Human Development Report, 2006: Liberia

3 17 21 24 31

CHAPTER 2: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONFLICT

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Francis, Africa at War against Itself: Civil Wars and New Security Threats Collier, Doing Well Out of War: An Economic Perspective Fukuda-Parr, Ashwill, Chiappa, and Messineo, The Conflict-Development Nexus: A Survey of Armed Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1980–2005 Bond, Global Uneven Development, Primitive Accumulation and Political-Economic Conflict in Africa: The Return of the Theory of Imperialism Humphreys, Economics and Violent Conflict Human Security Centre, Human Security Brief, 2006

53 67

CHAPTER 3: ECONOMIC POLICY, CONFLICT, AND PEACE Cheru, Africa and the Globalization Challenge Mkandawire, Maladjusted African Economies and Globalisation Cheru, Building and Supporting PRSPs in Africa: What Has Worked Well So Far? What Needs Changing? Humphreys, Economics and Violent Conflict Paris, Adopt Conflict-Reducing Economic Policies Galtung, Six Economic Schools UN Millennium Project, Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals

CHAPTER 4: INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND HUMANITARIAN AND DEVELOPMENT AID: STRATEGIES AND IMPACT Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict Pugh, The Political Economy of Peacebuilding: A Critical Theory Perspective Goodhand, Understanding Responses to Conflict: International Intervention and Aid Okumu, Humanitarian International NGOs and African Conflicts Lancaster, Aid to Africa: So Much to Do, So Little Done Clemens, Smart Samaritans Macrae, Collinson, Buchanan-Smith, Reindorp, Schmidt, Mowjee and Harmer, Uncertain Power: The Changing Role of Official Donors in Humanitarian Action Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations

CHAPTER 5: DEMILITARISATION AND HUMAN SECURITY Neethling, The Security-Development Nexus and the Imperative of Peacebuilding with Special Reference to the African Context Tschirgi, The Security-Development Nexus: From Rhetoric to Understanding Complex Dynamics United Kingdom Department for International Development, Development and Security Working Together Rupiya, An African Perspective of the Reform of the Security Sector Since the 1990s Middlebrook and Peake, Right-Financing Security Sector Reform Vencovsky, Economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants Hutchful, A Civil Society Perspective v

45

78 86 94 100

103 106 124 127 140 142 146 154

157 159 165 169 184 191 209 215 221

225 228 234 246 248 257 264 268

vi

Contents

CHAPTER 6: STATE-BUILDING AND DEM